Where Is The Thyroid Gland Located

Whenever it comes to reducing your weight everybody places blame their thyroid gland first of all. They run to their physician and have their thyroid gland checked out. As soon as it comes back normal or actually a little high they are quick to write off idea that the thyroid gland is a cause of their own trouble. Nevertheless, time and time again its been verified that one can easily have a sluggish fat burning capacity and difficulty losing weight simply due to a borderline or lower than normal thyroid level. Many dieters and even doctors do not understand that merely a very small impairment of thyroid gland function can significantly slow fat burning capacity.

Why is Your Thyroid Gland so Important?

Of all of your endocrine glands, no doubt, the thyroid is the controller and regulator of the metabolic processes of every cell in the body. High function leads to faster metabolic rate and slow function to a slowing down of function and metabolic rate.

Just What is the Normal and Abnormal Thyroid Gland Test?

The gold standard thyroid examination is definitely the thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH. TSH is made in the anterior pituitary gland of our bodies and is produced in reaction to the amount of thyroid in the blood. A higher TSH amount indicates a lower thyroid gland while a reduced to normal TSH suggests a normal to higher functioning thyroid. The standard reference range of TSH was set up to be 0.5 units to 4.5 units.

A guide range is developed by taking a large group of men and women in the human population, calculating their TSH amounts, and figuring out an average value. Supposedly, these men and women should be totally free of thyroid disease. What professionals are now coming to recognize, however, is that the higher range in the TSH normal guide range has contained men and women who actually have moderate or developing thyroid ailment, and their higher TSH levels skewed the standard curve.

Precisely What Are the New Normal TSH Ranges?

This led to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Academy of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC), to state that any individual with a TSH greater than 2.6 units will be considered to have a low thyroid function.

What Does All of This Mean to Me If I Have Trouble Losing Weight?

AACE estimates that the new guidelines actually double the number of people who have abnormal thyroid function, bringing the total to as many as 27 million, up from 13 million thought to have the condition under the old guidelines. These new reports would make thyroid gland disorder the commonest endocrine system disorder in America, far outpacing diabetes. So if you are having difficulty with your excess weight, re-check your TSH-level. If your level is 2.6 units or greater, you most likely have a sluggish thyroid gland which can be the explanation of much of your weight loss difficulty.

Its an easy examination that any physician or lab can perform. It will save you plenty of worry and make your weight loss so much easier.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the treatment for a goiter?
    I recently had to swallow a radioactive capsule with xrays and then had blood work up for my thyroid gland. So far everything is negative for cancer and the blood work was normal. I have a soft medium sized lump where my thyroid gland is located. One of my Dr.s thinks it's a goiter. What is the next step in my treatment? I've gained a lot of weight, sometimes have trouble breathing, high blood pressure, get hoarse and I have trouble swallowing sometimes. What is the next step? Thank you.

    • ANSWER:

  2. QUESTION:
    What affect do these hormones have on the human body?
    I'm doing the Thyroid gland and parathyroid glands, and the hormones they make are t3, t4, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone. What affect do these hormones have on the human body? (I've been looking everywhere. Somebody help me. I need some help on all this hard work I'm doing, please.)

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid consists of two lobes located on the ventral surface of the trachea. Produces T3 ( triiodothyrone) and T4 ( thyroxine) derived from the amino acid tyrosine. T3 is usually more reactive than T4. Iodine is the element that is necessary for the production of these hormones. It also produces and secretes the material calcitonin which lowers blood calcium by inhibiting the release from bones. TSH controls the production and release of these thyroid hormones.

      Parathyroid Glands:
      4 small glands embedded in the thyroid gland. Secretes Parathormone which regulated the calcium levels in the body. Vitamin D is needed to function.

  3. QUESTION:
    Where in the body are the endocrine glands located?
    The endocrine glands: adrenal medulla; adrenal cortex; pancreas; thymus; thyroid gland, parathyroid glands; gonads; hypothalamus (actually part of brain) & pituitary gland.

    • ANSWER:
      I agree - absolutely minimal searching effort should get you a diagram, for example on wikipedia. As a side note, that isn't a complete list of all the endocrine tissue in the body. You missed the pineal gland, and there are other organs that have multiple roles. For example, both the kidneys and the heart also release hormones and thus are considered to have endocrine function as well.

  4. QUESTION:
    Is the thyroid gland or the kidneys in a body cavity? If they are, which ones?
    I'm filling out an online quiz for my Anatomy class and it is asking me where certain organs are located and in what cavity's. There is an option that says "Not in a body cavity" and I want to know if that's the answer because I can't find it ANYWHERE in my book that answer's this question for the thyroid glands or kidneys!

    • ANSWER:
      The kidney is located in the abdominal cavity. The brain in the cranial cavity and the heart in the thoracic cavity. The thyroid is not in a cavity.

  5. QUESTION:
    The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the?
    A) thyroid gland.
    B) medulla oblongata.
    C) subcutaneous layer of the skin.
    D) liver.
    E) hypothalamus.

    • ANSWER:
      E) hypothalamus.

  6. QUESTION:
    How can you raise your thyroid levels?
    My wife was tested for Rheumatoid Arthritis and they said her Thyroid levels were really low but didn't give her anything to help her but said it's probably why she is tired all the time and just nods off on occasion. Is there anything that you can take OTC or any supplements or natural remedies or anything that could help to raise those levels or just help in general?

    • ANSWER:
      Other than iodine, Vitamin E is the most important component in raising and maintaining thyroid levels. In addition, Vitamin E is an universal defense against disease and infection, and can help stave off thyroid disease. Vitamin E also helps with the intake process of iodine, making it more usable. When combined with Vitamin A and zinc, Vitamin E can improve the function of the thyroid gland in producing its hormones.

      The thyroid is controlled by the hypothalamus, which in turn is controlled by the pituitary gland. Both of these glands are located inside the brain. Vitamin D triggers the thyroid hormone production process in the pituitary gland, and is also believed to play a role in the early stages of binding thyroxine to its receptor, which then carries it through the bloodstream.

      Vitamin A is not only good for thyroid health, but for that of all glands in the human body. Its active ingredient is beta-Carotene, which is found naturally in many vegetables, including carrots.

      A deficiency of the Vitamin B family can lead to a number of maladies, including low thyroid levels. Vitamin B literally helps build both the adrenal and the thyroid glands,

      Hope this helps.

  7. QUESTION:
    Thyroid Glane controlled by the Pituitary Gland help?
    Why is a home heating system a good model for the way that the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus? Describe how each system is controlled.

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary, which is considered the ‘master gland’ of the endocrine system. The pituitary is located at the base of the brain. Its principal function is to monitor and regulate the activity of the other glands. The pituitary affects the thyroid gland by producing a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which prompts the thyroid to release more T4 and T3. If there is too much T4 circulating in the blood, the pituitary reduces the amount of TSH produced, which then causes thyroid activity to slow. If there is too little T4, the pituitary increases the amount of TSH. In this way, T4 and T3 levels in the blood are kept relatively constant. The pituitary gland, in turn, is overseen by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.

  8. QUESTION:
    When affected by thryoid problems, do you always feel the inflammation in your throat?
    I was just wondering because I have thryoid problems and sometimes I feel it and sometimes I don't. It makes me gag a lot and sometimes I have a lot of gas. I feel it some days the whole day and others I don't. Those with thyroid problems, do you experience the same? Thanks for helping.

    • ANSWER:
      No. Your thyroid is a gland. Although it is located in your throat area, it has very little to do with swallowing, etc. People with thyroid problems can have hormone problems affecting their whole body.

      Your might have something wrong with your larynx, or esophagus.

      My wife had thyroid problems and did not really notice it at all until it was diagnosed.

      You should see a doctor about your throat thing. A doctor can get you zeroed in on what the problem is.

  9. QUESTION:
    Can you fast during Ramadan if you have hypothyroidism?
    My doctor says no, but I have heard of several people fasting during this holy month and they have thyroid disease--their doctor said it was okay. Thoughts?

    • ANSWER:
      Honey, each person is different... Just because another person's hypothyroidism was such that it was acceptable to fast has no bearing what so ever on YOUR health.

      I have no idea what YOUR body is like...

      No one else here has any idea what YOUR body is like...

      OTHER PEOPLE WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM HAVE NO IDEA WHAT YOUR BODY IS LIKE...

      Listen to your doctor! S/he knows more about what is up with you than any stranger you meet on the Internet.

      What is healthy with one person can kill another... Your health is important... And your theism has rules about exceptions for ill health because your god doesn't want his followers to drop dead because "Everyone Else Says..."

      Hypothyroidism won't kill you but it can complicate your long term health.

      For those that don't know what she is talking about:

      Hypothyroidism Overview
      https://health.google.com/health/ref/Hypothyroidism
      Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

      Early symptoms:
      Being more sensitive to cold
      Constipation
      Depression
      Fatigue or feeling slowed down
      Heavier menstrual periods
      Joint or muscle pain
      Paleness or dry skin
      Thin, brittle hair or fingernails
      Weakness
      Weight gain (unintentional)

      Late symptoms, if left untreated:
      Decreased taste and smell
      Hoarseness
      Puffy face, hands, and feet
      Slow speech
      Thickening of the skin
      Thinning of eyebrows

      Treatment
      The purpose of treatment is to replace the thyroid hormone that is lacking. Levothyroxine is the most commonly used medication. Doctors will prescribe the lowest dose that effectively relieves symptoms and brings the TSH level to a normal range. If you have heart disease or you are older, your doctor may start with a very small dose.

      Lifelong therapy is required unless you have a condition called transient viral thyroiditis.

      You must continue taking your medication even when your symptoms go away. When starting your medication, your doctor may check your hormone levels every 2 - 3 months. After that, your thyroid hormone levels should be monitored at least every year.

      Important things to remember when you are taking thyroid hormone are:
      Do NOT stop taking the medication when you feel better. Continue taking the medication exactly as directed by your doctor.
      If you change brands of thyroid medicine, let your doctor know. Your levels may need to be checked.
      Some dietary changes can change the way your body absorbs the thryoid medicine. Talk with your doctor if you are eating a lot of soy products or a high-fiber diet.

      Thryoid medicine works best on an empty stomach and when taken 1 hour before any other medications. Do NOT take thyroid hormone with calcium, iron, multivitamins, alumin hydroxide antacids, colestipol, or other medicines that bind bile acids, or fiber supplements.

      After you start taking replacement therapy, tell your doctor if you have any symptoms of increased thyroid activity (hyperthyroidism) such as:
      Rapid weight loss
      Restlessness or shakiness
      Sweating
      Myxedema coma is a medical emergency that occurs when the body's level of thyroid hormones becomes extremely low. It is treated with intravenous thyroid hormone replacement and steroid medications. Some patients may need supportive therapy (oxygen, breathing assistance, fluid replacement) and intensive-care nursing.

      Causes
      The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck just below the voice box (larynx). It releases hormones that control metabolism.

      The most common cause of hypothyroidism is inflammation of the thyroid gland, which damages the gland's cells. Autoimmune or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, is the most common example of this. Some women develop hypothyroidism after pregancy (often referred to as "postpartum throiditis").

      Other common causes of hypothyroidism include:
      Congenital (birth) defects
      Radiation treatments to the neck to treat different cancers, which may also damage the thyroid gland
      Radioactive iodine used to treat an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
      Surgical removal of part or all of the thyroid gland, done to treat other thyroid problems
      Viral thyroiditis, which may case hyperthyroidism and is often followed by temporary or permanent hypothyroidism
      Certain drugs can cause hyperthyroidism, including:
      Amiodarone
      Drugs used for hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), such as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole
      Lithium
      Radiation to the brain

      Sheehan syndrome, a condition that may occur in a woman who bleeds severely during pregnancy or childbirth and causes destruction of the pituitary gland
      Risk factors include:
      Age over 50 years
      Being female

      Tests & diagnosis
      A physical examination may reveal a smaller-than-normal thyroid gland, although sometimes the gland is normal size or even enlarged (goiter). The examination may also reveal:
      Brittle nails
      Coarse facial features
      Pale or dry skin, which may be cool to the touch
      Swelling of the arms and legs
      Thin and brittle hair
      A chest x-ray may show an enlarged heart.
      Laboratory tests to determine thyroid function include:
      Serum TSH
      T4 test
      Lab tests may also reveal:
      Anemia on a complete blood count (CBC)
      Increased cholesterol levels
      Increased liver enzymes
      Increased prolactin
      Low sodium

      Prognosis
      In most cases, thyroid levels return to with proper treatment. However, thyroid hormone replacement must be taken for the rest of your life.
      Myxedema coma can result in death.

      Prevention
      There is no prevention for hypothyroidism.
      Screening tests in newborns can detect hypothyroidism that is present from birth (congenital hypothyroidism).

      Complications
      Myxedema coma, the most severe form of hypothyroidism, is rare. It may be caused by an infection, illness, exposure to cold, or certain medications in people with untreated hypothyroidism.
      Symptoms and signs of myxedema coma include:
      Below normal temperature
      Decreased breathing
      Low blood pressure
      Low blood sugar
      Unresponsiveness
      Other complications are:
      Heart disease
      Increased risk of infection
      Infertility
      Miscarriage
      People with untreated hypothyroidism are at increased risk for:
      Giving birth to a baby with birth defects
      Heart disease because of higher levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol
      Heart failure

      People treated with too much thyroid hormone are at risk for angina or heart attack, as well as osteoporosis (thinning of the bones).

      When to contact a doctor
      Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of hypothyroidism (or myxedema).
      If you are being treated for hypothyroidism, call your doctor if:
      You develop chest pain or rapid heartbeat
      You have an infection
      Your symptoms get worse or do not improve with treatment
      You develop new symptoms

  10. QUESTION:
    What are the disorders associated with the thyroid gland?
    WHAT IS HYPERTHYROIDISM?
    WHAT IS HYPOTHYROIDISM?
    WHAT ARE NODULES? HOW MANY TYPES OF NODULES ARE THERE?

    • ANSWER:
      thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located just below your Adam's apple. The thyroid produces hormones that affect your body's metabolism and energy level. Thyroid problems are among the most common medical conditions but, because their symptoms often appear gradually, they are commonly misdiagnosed

      The three most common thyroid problems are the underactive thyroid, the overactive thyroid , and thyroid nodules.

      The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In this condition, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland.
      Common symptoms of hypothyroidism are:
      Fatigue or lack of energy
      Weight gain
      Feeling cold
      Dry skin and hair
      Heavy menstrual periods
      Constipation
      Slowed thinking

      The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease. This occurs when the body's immune system overstimulates the thyroid.
      Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:
      Jitteriness, shaking, increased nervousness, irritability
      Rapid heart beat or palpitations
      Feeling hot
      Weight loss
      Fatigue, feeling exhausted
      More frequent bowel movements
      Shorter or lighter menstrual periods

      Thyroid nodules are fairly common and usually harmless. However, about 4% of nodules are cancerous, so further testing needs to be done. This is usually best accomplished by fine needle aspiration biopsy. This is a quick and simple test that takes just a few minutes to perform in the doctor's office. If the biopsy does not raise any suspicion of cancer, the nodule is usually observed. Some thyroid specialists recommend treatment with thyroid hormone to try to decrease the size of the nodule. A second biopsy is usually recommended 6-12 months later, to make sure there continues to be no evidence of cancer. If a nodule is cancerous, suspicious for cancer, or grows large enough to interfere with swallowing or breathing, surgical removal is advised.

  11. QUESTION:
    What are the effects of have a hypothyroid?
    My latest test results show me having a 16.3 level when the norm for my age is 5.0-7.0. Recently i missed a period...i am two 2 1/2 weeks late and have taken 5 HPT test and they are negative and a blood test which also came back negative...i have some symptoms of pregnancy and i wanted to know if the thyroid has anything to do with me missing my cycle...thanks.
    I was diagnosed in 2004 and have been on and off the meds since then but this is the first time that it might have made me miss my period.

    • ANSWER:
      FYI;
      The thyroid is a small gland located below the skin and muscles at the front of the neck, just at the spot where a bow tie would rest. It's brownish red, with left and right halves (called lobes) that look like a butterfly's wings. It's light like a butterfly, too, and usually weighs less than an ounce.

      As small as it is, though, the thyroid has an enormously important job to do, especially for teens. It manufactures the hormones that help control metabolism and growth. To do its job, the thyroid needs a chemical element called iodine that the body absorbs from the foods you eat and the water you drink. The entire body contains about 50 milligrams of iodine. About 1/5 to 1/3 of that supply (10 to 15 milligrams) is stored in your thyroid. The thyroid combines the iodine with tyrosine (an essential amino acid) to make important hormones.

      Thyroid hormones are released from the gland and travel through the bloodstream to your body's cells. They help control the growth and the structure of bones, sexual development (puberty), and many other body functions. By helping your cells convert oxygen and calories into the energy they need to work properly, these hormones are important in determining if your body will mature as it should. Thyroid hormones also directly affect how most of your organs function. So if your thyroid isn't operating properly, you can have problems in lots of other parts of your body.

      What Is Thyroid Disease?
      Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland doesn't supply the proper amount of hormones needed by the body. If the thyroid is overactive, it releases too much thyroid hormone into the bloodstream, resulting in hyperthyroidism. ("Hyper" is from the Greek, meaning "over" or "above.") Hyperthyroidism causes the body to use up energy more quickly than it should, and chemical activity (like metabolism) in the cells speeds up.

      An underactive thyroid produces too little thyroid hormone, resulting in hypothyroidism. ("Hypo" means "under" or "below.") When the amount of hormone released into the bloodstream is below normal, the body uses up energy more slowly, and chemical activity (metabolism) in the cells slows down.

      Although they are two different conditions, in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism the thyroid can become larger than normal. An enlarged thyroid gland is a lump that can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck. When it is large enough to see easily, it's called a goiter. People who don't get enough iodine in their diets also can get an enlarged thyroid, but this is rare in the United States because foods here usually supply enough iodine.

      Hyperthyroidism
      Hyperthyroidism can cause nervousness, irritability, increased perspiration, intolerance to heat, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, a fast heartbeat, irregular menstrual periods in girls, and muscle weakness. People with this problem might lose weight even though they're eating more than usual. The eyes may feel irritated or look like they're staring. Sometimes the tissues around the eyes become inflamed and swollen, and the eyes appear to bulge out, but this is less common in teens than in adults with hyperthyroidism.

      Graves disease, an autoimmune disease, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. The condition makes a person's immune system produce abnormal types of antibodies (normally antibodies help the body fight infection). These abnormal antibodies make the thyroid gland produce more thyroid hormones. Eventually, the thyroid gland enlarges, which can result in a goiter. For reasons that doctors don't yet understand, autoimmune thyroid diseases like Graves disease are much more common in women and are most likely to occur in teens and young and middle-aged adults.

      Doctors usually diagnose Graves disease based on a person's symptoms, a physical examination, and blood tests that show high levels of thyroid hormone in the blood.

      Once the diagnosis is made, a teen with Graves disease will usually start taking an anti-thyroid medication, such as propylthiouracil or methimazole, which blocks the thyroid's production of thyroid hormones. Medication usually brings the hormone levels down to the normal range in 1 to 2 months.

      However, in most cases, the disease doesn't go away. Some people continue taking medication for months or years to keep Graves disease under control, but it can be a hassle to take medication 1 to 3 times a day for a long period. So many doctors recommend a permanent treatment.

      Radioactive iodine (RAI) is the most commonly recommended permanent treatment for teens with Graves disease today. It is usually given at a hospital, but doesn't require a hospital stay. RAI is considered safe for teens when given in the standard amount. It is taken in capsules or mixed with a glass of water. The thyroid gland quickly absorbs the RAI from the bloodstream and, within a few months, the gland shrinks and symptoms gradually disappear. RAI has been used to treat Graves disease successfully for more than 50 years.

      The other permanent treatment for Graves disease is surgery to remove most of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy). The operation is performed in a hospital under general anesthesia, meaning the person is asleep and feels nothing during the surgery. A small incision (cut) in the lower central part of the neck usually leaves a thin scar. After surgery, there typically is swelling in the area of the incision. People sometimes have a sore throat and some trouble swallowing following surgery, although they should be able to eat and drink normally. These symptoms usually disappear within a few days.

      After treatment for hyperthyroidism, hormone production often slows down to hypothyroid (underactive) levels, so the person needs to take a thyroid hormone replacement tablet each day. This treatment is a lot easier to manage than taking pills to control the hyperthyroidism - fewer blood tests, doctor visits, and medication adjustments are necessary.

      As the body adjusts to the hormone replacement tablets, a doctor may increase or reduce the dosage until the levels of thyroid hormone in a person's blood are normal. Once the doctor finds the proper dosage, people usually feel well and free of symptoms. However, the doctor will continue to check hormone levels to make sure the dosage is right, especially for growing teens whose levels might change over just a few months.

      Hypothyroidism
      A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine - in fact, the condition might cause no symptoms at all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses.

      People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed and sluggish. They might gain weight, even though they're not eating more or getting less exercise than usual. Teens with hypothyroidism also might have slow growth in height, slow sexual development, irregular menstrual periods in girls, muscle weakness, dry skin, hair loss, poor memory, and difficulty concentrating.

      Hashimoto's thyroiditis (pronounced: hah-she-moe-toes thy-roy-dye-tiss) is also an autoimmune disease and is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in teens. In this condition, the body's immune system attacks the cells in the thyroid gland, preventing it from producing enough thyroid hormone. The thyroid responds by working harder to make enough hormones. This can make it become enlarged and may result in a goiter.

      Hypothyroidism is usually easily diagnosed with a physical examination and blood tests, and treatment with thyroid hormone replacement pills can restore normal levels of thyroid hormone in the blood. This treatment is pretty simple, but it does require doctor visits once or twice a year for an examination, blood tests, and medication adjustments as needed.

      Goiters and Thyroid Nodules
      It can take months or years for a goiter to develop. In teens, goiters are usually caused by the autoimmune thyroid conditions discussed above, which might show no obvious symptoms until the goiter is visible as a swelling at the front of the neck. People with this problem might have the sensation that food is stuck in the throat, especially when they lie down or sleep on their backs.

      Generally, treatment of the thyroid disease causing the goiter will decrease or control the enlargement. If the thyroid continues to get larger despite treatment and becomes large enough to cause discomfort or a lump in the neck, surgery may be required. However, surgery is not necessary for most people.

      A thyroid nodule is a lump or enlarged area in the thyroid gland. Sometimes a nodule can appear in a healthy gland. It may feel like a lump in the throat, or there may be tenderness or pain in the front of the neck. If the nodule is large enough, it may be visible at the front of the neck.

      Most thyroid nodules are harmless. A nodule may simply be an overgrowth of normal thyroid tissue, a swelling caused by inflammation (such as in autoimmune thyroid diseases) or a collection of fluid called a cyst.

      The doctor usually discovers nodules by touch during a physical examination. If the doctor finds a nodule, blood tests might be needed to find out how the thyroid gland is working. A doctor may also take an ultrasound image of the gland to detect whether the nodule is a cyst or a solid growth or tumor. In addition to doing a physical examination, the doctor will ask you about any concerns and symptoms you have, your past health, your family's health, any medications you're taking, any allergies you may have, and other issues. This is called the medical history.

      Another test called a thyroid scan can tell the doctor what type of nodule a person has. For this test, a person swallows a pill containing a small amount of radioactive iodine or another radioactive substance. The thyroid absorbs the radioactive substance. Next, a special camera measures where the radioactive substance is taken up by the thyroid gland, giving the doctor a better picture of the location, size, and type of thyroid nodule.

      In addition, a fine needle biopsy may be done to help determine whether a nodule is cancerous. During the biopsy, the doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin into the thyroid nodule (the skin is numbed with medication first). Through the needle, the doctor takes a sample of tissue or some fluid from a cyst. The tissue or fluid is then sent to a lab to be examined. In some cases, a person might need to have the nodule surgically removed for more detailed examination in the lab. Fortunately, cancer is rare in children and teens, and most thyroid cancers can be cured or controlled with treatment.

      Thyroid Disease, Growth, and Puberty
      Once puberty starts, the body goes through some very noticeable changes. Because thyroid hormones play an important role in this process, thyroid disease may slow down or interfere with a teen's physical development. But it's important to know that not everyone grows or develops at the same age or at the same rate. If your friend seems to grow 4 inches overnight and you haven't had a growth spurt yet, it doesn't mean there's something wrong with you or your thyroid.

      A thyroid problem may also cause a girl to have changes in her periods. Girls with thyroid problems may have a decrease or increase in menstrual flow or there may be a shorter or longer time between periods than usual. However, because girls who are just starting to menstruate often have irregular periods for the first year or so, changes in periods are usually nothing to worry about and don't mean a person has thyroid disease.

      People who are concerned that they might have a thyroid problem should visit the doctor. Chances are, the problem is something simpler. And if a person does have thyroid disease, diagnosing and treating it properly - including bringing the blood levels of thyroid hormones back to normal - will usually prevent or correct any problems.

      Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
      Date reviewed: September 2006

  12. QUESTION:
    How do I check my adrenal glands?
    I don't have much fight left in me and I got my thyroid, liver and kidney's checked and all seem fine.

    Are there simple tests for my adrenal glands like laying down and standing up fast or something like that or my temperature?

    • ANSWER:
      Symptoms of adrenal fatigue:

      Morning fatigue -- You don't really seem to "wake up" until 10 a.m., even if you've been awake since 7 a.m.
      Afternoon "low" (feelings of sleepiness or clouded thinking) from 2 to 4 p.m.
      Burst of energy at 6 p.m. -- You finally feel better from your afternoon lull.
      Sleepiness at 9 to 10 p.m. -- However, you resist going to sleep.
      "Second wind" at 11 p.m. that lasts until about 1 a.m., when you finally go to sleep.
      Cravings for foods high in salt and fat
      Increased PMS or menopausal symptoms
      Mild depression
      Lack of energy
      Decreased ability to handle stress
      Muscular weakness
      Increased allergies
      Lightheadedness when getting up from a sitting or laying down position
      Decreased sex drive
      Frequent sighing
      Inability to handle foods high in potassium or carbohydrates unless they're combined with fats and protein
      In addition to noticing these symptoms in yourself, you can objectively check for adrenal fatigue by using the following three tests:

      Ragland's sign (blood pressure test) -- (Equipment required: Home blood pressure kit) Take your blood pressure while sitting down. Then, stand up and immediately take your blood pressure again. Your systolic (first) number should have raised 8 to 10 mm. If it dropped, you probably have adrenal fatigue.
      Pupil dilation exam -- (Equipment required: Flashlight and a mirror) Look into the mirror and shine the flashlight into the pupil of one eye. It should contract. If after 30 seconds, it stays the same or, even worse, dilates, you most likely have adrenal fatigue.
      Pain when pressing on adrenal glands (located over kidneys)
      Though the ACTH laboratory exam doesn't effectively test for adrenal fatigue, a salivary cortisol test can. You don't need a prescription for the exam. In fact, you can even buy the test online, do it at home and send in your sample to a lab for the results. Dr. Wilson is very positive about the effectiveness of the salivary cortisol test in diagnosing adrenal fatigue. It is so valid and accepted that Plan B Medicare covers it and "they don't want to cover anything they don't have to," he quips. If you don't have insurance, rest assured that this non-invasive test is also very affordable.

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      The easy, relaxed lifestyle experienced by our ancestors no longer exists, and we're not even aware of how much stress we're under. The problem? "Our lifestyles have changed, but our bodies haven't," Dr. James Wilson said in his November lecture at the First Arizona Choices Exposition in Tucson, Ariz. A large portion of our population is feeling tired and stressed out, and we want to know why.
      The adrenal glands sit over the kidneys, where they play a significant role in the body, secreting more than 50 hormones necessary for life, including epinephrine (adrenaline), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), progesterone and testosterone. Since they produce so many essential hormones, the adrenal glands are responsible for many of the functions we need to stay alive and healthy, including:

      Energy production -- carbohydrate, protein and fat conversion to blood glucose for energy
      Fluid and electrolyte balance
      Fat storage
      One hormone in particular, cortisol, is extremely important for keeping our body systems in balance, as well as protecting our cells. For example:
      It controls the strength of the immune system: Too much cortisol weakens the immune system, setting the motions for increased susceptibility to infections and cancer, while too little leads to an overactive immune system and autoimmune disease.
      It normalizes blood sugar.
      It regulates blood pressure.
      These small but mighty glands also work with other hormones and systems in what Dr. Wilson calls a "symphony." As he points out, when one part of this symphony drops out, such as what happens after menopause for women and andropause for men, the adrenal glands have to pick up the slack by producing larger amounts of sex hormones. Because of this, Wilson claims, good adrenal gland function is linked to longevity.
      Unfortunately, the adrenal glands' health is paradoxical. As the manufacturer of adrenaline, they are the "glands of stress," but are also the first glands to fail during prolonged or intense periods of stress. The problem with stressors is that they are "cumulative," in the sense that their impact tends to add up in the body over time until your adrenal glands (and probably your mental state) just can't take anymore. "One more stress is the stress that breaks the camel's back," Dr. Wilson says.

      Some people call the time when the "camel's back" finally breaks a "nervous breakdown." However, nerves really don't break down; adrenal glands do. A "nervous breakdown" is actually adrenal fatigue, or when the adrenal glands can't deal with the amount of stress they're given. Adrenal fatigue used to be rare, but is now all too common because of our lack of relaxation and other lifestyle factors, such as smoking, sleep deprivation, poor eating habits and excessive caffeine intake, as well as allergies.

      Diagnosing (and misdiagnosing) adrenal fatigue

      To make matters worse, doctors often don't diagnose this problem. Dr. Wilson offers the example of a woman who has been to 37 doctors before finally receiving proper diagnosis and a renewed sense of hope. So, why don't doctors recognize adrenal fatigue? In medical school, they are only taught to look for extreme adrenal malfunction -- Addison's Disease, which occurs when the glands produce far too little cortisol, and Cushing's Syndrome, which stems from excessive cortisol production. They check adrenal function by testing ACTH levels, using a bell curve to recognize abnormal levels. This is where the problem occurs. ACTH tests only consider the top and bottom 2 percent of the curve abnormal, yet symptoms of adrenal malfunction occur after 15 percent of the mean on both sides of the curve. In other words, your adrenal glands can be functioning 20 percent below the mean and the rest of your body experiencing symptoms of adrenal fatigue, yet most mainstream physicians won't recognize that you have a problem.

      Fortunately, there are ways you can test yourself for adrenal fatigue. To start off, go ahead and "check off" the symptoms you have been experiencing.

      Symptoms of adrenal fatigue:

      Morning fatigue -- You don't really seem to "wake up" until 10 a.m., even if you've been awake since 7 a.m.

      Afternoon "low" (feelings of sleepiness or clouded thinking) from 2 to 4 p.m.

      Burst of energy at 6 p.m. -- You finally feel better from your afternoon lull.

      Sleepiness at 9 to 10 p.m. -- However, you resist going to sleep.

      "Second wind" at 11 p.m. that lasts until about 1 a.m., when you finally go to sleep.

      Cravings for foods high in salt and fat
      Increased PMS or menopausal symptoms
      Mild depression
      Lack of energy
      Decreased ability to handle stress
      Muscular weakness
      Increased allergies
      Lightheadedness when getting up from a sitting or laying down position
      Decreased sex drive
      Frequent sighing
      Inability to handle foods high in potassium or carbohydrates unless they're combined with fats and protein
      In addition to noticing these symptoms in yourself, you can objectively check for adrenal fatigue by using the following three tests:

      Ragland's sign (blood pressure test) -- (Equipment required: Home blood pressure kit) Take your blood pressure while sitting down. Then, stand up and immediately take your blood pressure again. Your systolic (first) number should have raised 8 to 10 mm. If it dropped, you probably have adrenal fatigue.

      Pupil dilation exam -- (Equipment required: Flashlight and a mirror) Look into the mirror and shine the flashlight into the pupil of one eye. It should contract. If after 30 seconds, it stays the same or, even worse, dilates, you most likely have adrenal fatigue.

      Pain when pressing on adrenal glands (located over kidneys)
      Though the ACTH laboratory exam doesn't effectively test for adrenal fatigue, a salivary cortisol test can. You don't need a prescription for the exam. In fact, you can even buy the test online, do it at home and send in your sample to a lab for the results. Dr. Wilson is very positive about the effectiveness of the salivary cortisol test in diagnosing adrenal fatigue. It is so valid and accepted that Plan B Medicare covers it and "they don't want to cover anything they don't have to," he quips. If you don't have insurance, rest assured that this non-invasive test is also very affordable.

      Treatment of adrenal fatigue

      "Optimal adrenal health is one of the major keys to the enjoyment of life," according to Dr. Wilson. If you have adrenal fatigue, you can fully live life

  13. QUESTION:
    What is thyroid ? What are the symptoms ? If untreated could it yield to enlarge of the heart or heart attack?
    Six years ago, I was diagnosed to have toxic thyroid. My doctor gave me medicine and when my thyroid is in normal level, my doctor recommend a radioactive treatment. But I never undergo a radioactive treatment. Just this afternoon, I happen to met a long highschool friend who is now a successful doctor. He told me to have a medical check up immediately because my heart might start to enlarge due to non treatment of thyroid. Is there any doctor out there who can share us ?

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid is the gland found in front of your throat or trachea. It produces hormones that are necessary for metabolism of your body. Your thyroid can be hyperfunctioning (hyperthyroid) meaning it produces more than what is needed, hypofuntioning (hypothyroid) when it produces less than what hormon is needed or it can be euthyroid, it means you have enough. there is also a small gland located in the brain that stimulates or control your thyroid, so even if basically your thyroid is ok, if the pituitary gland is abnormal, it can cause your thyroid to either produce more or produce less hormones. The more hormones it produce, the larger the gland gets.
      You had toxic thyroid, it means thay you have a hyperfunctioning gland. the problem with this is that the hormones produced cause faster metabolism, therefore you can have increased heart rate, increase metabolism of the body so weight loss, poor tolerance to heat and cold, tremors, etc. eye problems can also manifest, like proptosis or protruberance of the eyeballs.
      You have to have your hormone levels check to see if its normal, whether you need supplements or anti-thyroid hormones. Your heart enlarges because the greater/faster metabolism exerts a higher toll in your body, increase HR, so the muscles in the heart are overdeveloped (just like when you do weight lifting, if you keep exercising the muscle, it grows bigger!)

  14. QUESTION:
    What are the secondary lymphatic nodules associated with the nasal and oral cavities?
    what ones are located in connective tisse of mucus memebranes?

    what ones are located in the small intestine?

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not entirely sure if these are the ones that you were looking for, but quoted from Wikipedia

      Anterior cervical: These nodes, both superficial and deep, lie above and beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscles. They drain the internal structures of the throat as well as part of the posterior pharynx, tonsils, and thyroid gland.
      Posterior cervical: These nodes extend in a line posterior to the sternocleidomastoids but in front of the trapezius, from the level of the Mastoid portion of the temporal bone to the clavicle. They are frequently enlarged during upper respiratory infections.
      Tonsillar: These nodes are located just below the angle of the mandible. They drain the tonsillar and posterior pharyngeal regions.
      Sub-mandibular: These nodes run along the underside of the jaw on either side. They drain the structures in the floor of the mouth.
      Sub-mental: These nodes are just below the chin. They drain the teeth and intra-oral cavity.

      And I think that the one for the small intestine is called the illiac lymph node.

  15. QUESTION:
    Can having a thyroid problem make some people obese?
    What is thyroid really?

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid is a small gland located below the skin and muscles at the front of the neck, just at the spot where a bow tie would rest. It's brownish red, with left and right halves (called lobes) that look like a butterfly's wings. It's light like a butterfly, too, and usually weighs less than an ounce.

      Thyroid hormones are released from the gland and travel through the bloodstream to your body's cells. They help control the growth and the structure of bones, sexual development (puberty), and many other body functions. By helping your cells convert oxygen and calories into the energy they need to work properly, these hormones are important in determining if your body will mature as it should. Thyroid hormones also directly affect how most of your organs function. So if your thyroid isn't operating properly, you can have problems in lots of other parts of your body.

      There are two kinds of thyroid diseases, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism. The one that would make you gain weight would be hypothyroidism. (That is what I have.)

      An underactive thyroid produces too little thyroid hormone, resulting in hypothyroidism. ("Hypo" means "under" or "below.") When the amount of hormone released into the bloodstream is below normal, the body uses up energy more slowly, and chemical activity (metabolism) in the cells slows down.

      Hypothyroidism

      A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition might cause no symptoms at all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses.

      People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed and sluggish. They might gain weight, even though they're not eating more or getting less exercise than usual. Teens with hypothyroidism also might have slow growth in height, slow sexual development, irregular menstrual periods in girls, muscle weakness, dry skin, hair loss, poor memory, and difficulty concentrating.

      When I got it had a severe case of it. My hair was falling out. I had gained a lot of weight. Also, I was super tired all the time and my grades were dropping in school.

      To sum it all up, yes Hypothyroidism can make you gain a lot of weight. However, you can go on medication for it that will make you all better, haha. However when you first go on the pill it makes you lose weight SUPER fast so if you do ever go on the medication make sure you eat healthily during that time period.

      Hope this helped! =)
      Read more on the website!

  16. QUESTION:
    What does the thyroid control in males is it normal to have thinning hair at age 23?
    I am 23 male 5 7 160pounds is it normal for someone my age to have thinning hair?

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid is the same for males and females. Its a butterfly shaped organ thats located in your neck. You can read about the thyroid on the internet just type it into Google. There are a few disorders that are linked to the thyroid gland when it doesn't work properly. Thinning hair, I think is one, if you are concerned you should talk to a doctor. It could be other things though.

  17. QUESTION:
    How do you know if your experiencing a Thyroid Storm?
    What are the symptons of having one?

    • ANSWER:
      Thyroid gland located at the ront of the neck.
      Symptoms:of Hyperthroidism includesweating, feeling hot, rapid heart beats, weight loss & sometimes eye problems. Now, if the syptoms get worse it can result in a serious condition called thyroid storm. One major sign that is different from plain hyperthyroidism is an elevated body tem which could go as high as 105 - 106 degrees ferinhite. Thyroid storm is unusual, but if it accures, it could bea life threatening emergency. people with these syptoms should be taken to the emergency room department....someone should drive them there, they should not take themselves. I hope this was of some help. good luck

  18. QUESTION:
    Ductless glands such as the thyriod contain a large num of capillaries which are located close to the cells. W?
    ductless glands such as the thyroid contains a large number of calpillaries which are located close to the cells. Why is this?

    • ANSWER:
      Because they secrete their products to the extracellular space; it diffuses into the blood (through the very thin walled capillaries) and can circulate through the body to their target. The glands that produce hormones are ductless.

  19. QUESTION:
    in what ways are the adrenal cortex functions and the thyroid gland functions similar?
    any help would be greatly appreciated.

    if you are able to answer this question maybe you could help with the follow on.
    i also need to compare their internal and external structures in relation to their functions and explain how each tissue is able to carry out its role. I need comparisons for this

    thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Either of two small, dissimilarly shaped endocrine glands, one located above each kidney, consisting of the cortex, which secretes several steroid hormones, and the medulla, which secretes epinephrine. Also called suprarenal gland.

  20. QUESTION:
    What is the effect of a pacemaker after aortic valve replacement surgery?
    My father, aged 46, had open heart surgery on Wednesday and had his aortic valve replaced with a mechanical valve.

    His heart has not yet started up again on it's own (although he is awake) and they are now going to put in a pacemaker on Monday.

    I don't really know what all this means. Is it common? What risks are involved? The doctors seem fairly relaxed about the procedure and have ensured us there is nothing to worry about.

    Any information would be greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      "His heart has not yet started up again on it's own (although he is awake) and they are now going to put in a pacemaker on Monday."

      Your Dad's heart is a muscular organ with four chambers designed specifically to work efficiently , reliably, and continuously over his lifetime. the muscular wall thereof contract on a regulated sequence, which then pumps blood as required by the body while expending as little energy as possible during each heartbeat.

      The contractions of the muscle fibers in the heart itself is controlled by electricity that flows through the heart in a precise manner along distinct pathwaysand at a controlled speed.

      The electrical current that begins each and every heartbeat originates in your Dad's natural pacemaker, that is the sinus or sinoatrial node, which is located directly at he top of the upper right heart chamber or right atrium. The rate at which your Dad's natural pacemaker discharges its electrical current determines his heart rate. This rate is influenced by nerve impulses and by levels of certain hormones in his bloodstream.

      In adults at rest, the normal heart rate is usually between 60 and 100 beats per minute. However, lower rates are possible in young adults, especially if physically fit. Yet, the heart rate is considered by doctors to be normal ONLY when the heart rate is inappropriately fast or is irregular, but also when the electrical impulses travel along abnormal pathways.
      Age-related changes in the heart's electrical system make make some arrythmias more likely, possibly as in your Dad's case. An overactive thyroid gland, sometimes...no cause can be found to identify one.

      Most arrythmias neither cause symptoms nor interfere with the hearts ability to pump blood, and pose little or no risk, although they can cause considerable anxiety if someone becomes aware of them. However, some , harmless in in themselves, can lead to more serious arrhythmias. Thus, any arrhythmia that IMPAIRS THE HEART'S ABILITY to pump blood adequately is serious stuff. How serious depends on whether the arrhythmia originate in the natural pacemaker of the heart, in the atria, or in the ventricles. Those that originate in the ventricles are more serious than those that originate in the pacemaker. However there are exceptions....

      Your Dad's aortic valve replacement may possibly have been due to abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias) that are also known as sequential heartbeats that are irregular, too fast, too slow, or conducted via an abnormal electrical pathway through the heart. For with harmless arrhymthmias, reassurance is treatment enough. In your Dad's case, which I deduce is serious, an artificial pacemaker has been decided to help him regulate his heartbeat.

      Please note that sometimes the area of the natural pacemaker were your Dad's surgeon intenionally felt safe to cut into sometimes gets damaged in heart surgeries. ...as all heart surgery are purported to be the taking of risk ...and in a risky situation, some things just happen ...unknowingly and without malice.

      The natural pacemaker of your Dad's heart, the sinoatrial node, has two places involved, where when one portion of this natural pacemaker is damaged, the other takes up the slack. Sometime this 'slack' isn't strong enough or does not occur. Thus a pacemaker implant is the decision of the Doctors that will act in place of your Dad's own pacemaker to his benefit. They implant it surgically under the skin, usu. below the left or right collarbone,...then connect it to the heart by running wires inside of the brachiocephalic vein. It's low-energy circuitry and battery designs now last a patient about 10-15 years undesturbed.

      When you Dad's heartbeat, after placement, slows below a certain threashhold set by the doctors on the pacemaker, the electronic pacemaker will begin immediately by firing the necessary electrical impulses to assist your Dad in increaseing his heart rate accordingly.

      I hope this helps...
      Much Love and Respect

      N.B.:

      I agree with POPO: Your best answers are going to come from the cardiologist who is caring for your father, don't be afraid to ask.

  21. QUESTION:
    What is the name of the organs in human body which make hormones?
    They are behind kidneys and they are also in a pair like kidneys. I was told this by a doctor but he was Ukrainian and he didn't know the word for it in English.

    • ANSWER:
      The Adrenal glands. They produce Adrenaline which helps the body use energy, making it available for the 'fight or flight' response of the human body to perceived danger.

      Edit: The adrenal glands sit on the kidneys as you specified in your question. As for the other glands, they are either endocrine (hormones released directly into the bloodstream) or exocrine glands (hormones released through a duct or tube).

      The Cortex, or outer layer of the Adrenal gland manufactures steroid hormones that regulate the metabolism of glucose, sodium and potassium, and maintains a proper fluid balance. The Medulla, or inner layer of the adrenal gland produces adrenaline, as mentioned before.

      Other endocrine glands include, the Hypothalamus (the main link between the nerves and hormones) the Pineal gland (sleep and sexual development), the Pituitary gland (the big daddy hormone control centre in the brain,) the Thyroid gland (controls metabolism), the Thymus gland (for the immune system), the Heart (produces a hormone called atriopeptin,) the Kidney (secretes erythropolietin,which stimulates the production of red blood cells in bone marrow,) the Stomach ( makes hormones that stimulate the production of enzymes that aid digestion,) the Pancreas (produces two hormones Insulin and Glucagon, that respectively lowers and raises blood glucose levels,) the Intestines (same job as stomach,) the Ovaries (female sex hormones and regulation) and the Testes (male sex hormone regulation and sperm production.)

      Hope this answers your question.

      Edit: Hi There has got some things right but these are WRONG. The liver secretes bile into the Gall bladder, where it is stored until used by the digestive system to emuslify fats, so they can be broken down by the digestive system.

      Bile does not dilute the Hydrochloric acid in the stomach, it is not released in the stomach, but in the Duodenum, the tube that leads out of the stomach into the small intestine.

      The Pancreas does not produce the same substances as the liver, it produces some digestive enzymes in the Acini cells and hormones in the Islets of Langerhans.

      The Adrenal glands do not sit above the bladder, they are located above the kidneys.

      For goodness sake Hi There, look at an anatomy book before answering a question like this!

  22. QUESTION:
    what are the effects of a low calcium blood level?
    say someone had a thyroid problem. how would this effect his blood calcium homostasis as well as his bones? and how would you explain normal regulation of blood calcium?

    • ANSWER:
      In medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of low serum calcium levels in the blood, usually taken as less than 2.1 mmol/L or 9 mg/dl or an ionized calcium level of less than 1.1 mmol/L (4.5 mg/dL). It is a type of electrolyte disturbance. In the blood, about half of all calcium is bound to proteins such as serum albumin, but it is the unbound, or ionized, calcium that the body regulates. If a person has abnormal levels of blood proteins, then the plasma calcium may be inaccurate. The ionized calcium level is considered more clinically accurate in this case

      [edit] Cause
      It manifests as a symptom of a parathyroid hormone deficiency/malfunction, a Vitamin D deficiency, or unusually high magnesium levels hypermagnesemia, or low magnesium levels hypomagnesemia.

      More specifically, hypocalcemia may be associated with low PTH levels as seen in hereditary hypoparathyroidism, acquired hypoparathyroidism (surgical removal MCC of hypoparathyroidism), and hypomagnesemia. Hypocalcemia may be associated with high PTH levels when the parathyroid hormone is ineffective; in chronic renal failure, the hydroxylation of vitamin D is ineffective, calcium levels in the blood fall, and high PTH levels are produced in response to the low calcium, but fail to return calcium levels to normal.

      Eating disorders
      Excessive dietary magnesium, as with supplementation.
      Prolonged use of medications/laxatives containing magnesium
      Absent parathyroid hormone (PTH)
      Hereditary hypoparathyroidism
      Acquired hypoparathyroidism
      Hypomagnesemia
      Following parathyroidectomy, "Hungry Bone Syndrome"
      Following thyroidectomy, the parathyroid glands are located very close to the thyroid and are easily injured or even accidentally removed during thyroidectomy
      In DiGeorge Syndrome, a disease characterized by the failure of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches to develop, the parathyroid glands do not form and there is thus a lack of PTH.
      Ineffective PTH
      Chronic renal failure
      Absent active vitamin D
      Decreased dietary intake
      Decreased sun exposure
      Defective Vitamin D metabolism
      Anticonvulsant therapy
      Vitamin-D dependent rickets, type I
      Ineffective active vitamin D
      Intestinal malabsorption
      Vitamin-D dependent rickets, type II
      Pseudohypoparathyroidism
      Deficient PTH
      Severe acute hyperphosphatemia
      Tumor lysis syndrome
      Acute renal failure
      Rhabdomyolysis (initial stage)
      Osteitis fibrosa following parathyroidectomy
      Exposure to hydrofluoric acid
      As a complication of pancreatitis
      As a result of hyperventilation
      Alkalosis, often caused by hyperventilation
      Chelation Therapy
      Neonatal hypocalcemia
      Very low birth weight (less than 1500 grams)
      Gestational age less than 32 weeks

      [edit] Symptoms
      Perioral tingling and parasthesia, 'pins and needles' sensation over the extremities of hands and feet. This is the earliest symptom of hypocalcemia.
      Tetany, carpopedal spasm are seen.
      Latent tetany
      Trousseau sign of latent tetany (eliciting carpal spasm by inflating the blood pressure cuff and maintaining the cuff pressure above systolic)
      Chvostek's sign (tapping of the inferior portion of the zygoma will produce facial spasms)
      Tendon reflexes are hyperactive
      Life threatening complications
      Laryngospasm
      Cardiac arrhythmias
      EKG changes
      Prolonged QTc
      Prolonged ST interval

      [edit] Management
      Two ampoules of intravenous calcium gluconate 10% is given slowly in a period of 10 minutes, or if the hypocalcemia is severe, calcium chloride is given instead.
      Maintenance doses of both calcium and vitamin-D (often as 1,25-(OH)2-D3, i.e. calcitriol) are often necessary to prevent further decline.

  23. QUESTION:
    How to treat and what is Hyperthyroidism?
    .I was wondering what can happen if I don't get this treated? I've had it for a long time. It runs in my family.
    My conditions are that I never gain weight, I eat all the time, my heart beats faster when I'm sitting down. I'm also underweight.
    Are there anyone out there that has this treated or have this? What can I do to get it treated?
    Also what is it?
    Thanks for all you answers.

    • ANSWER:
      Definition

      Hyperthyroidism is a condition caused by an overactive thyroid gland. The gland makes too much T4 and T3 hormones. Hormones are substances that affect and control many important functions in the body.

      Alternative Names
      Thyrotoxicosis; Overactive thyroid

      Causes, incidence, and risk factors

      The thyroid gland is located in the neck. It produces several hormones which control the way that every cell in the body uses energy (metabolism). The thyroid is part of the endocrine system.

      Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis occurs when the thyroid releases too many of its hormones over a short (acute) or long (chronic) period of time. Many diseases and conditions can cause this problem, including:

      Graves disease
      Non-cancerous growths of the thyroid gland or pituitary gland
      Tumors of the testes or ovaries
      Inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the thyroid due to viral infections or other causes
      Ingestion (taking in through the mouth, such as in eating) of large amounts of thyroid hormone
      Ingestion of excessive iodineGraves disease accounts for 85% of all cases of hyperthyroidism.

      Related topics:

      Painless (silent thyroiditis
      Factitious hyperthyroidism
      Hypothyroidism
      Graves disease

      Symptoms

      Weight loss
      Increased appetite
      Nervousness
      Restlessness
      Heat intolerance
      Increased sweating
      Fatigue
      Frequent bowel movements
      Menstrual irregularities in women
      Goiter (visibly enlarged thyroid) may be present
      Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
      Weakness
      Sleeping difficulty
      Clammy skin
      Skin blushing or flushing
      Bounding pulse
      Nausea and vomiting
      Lack of menstruation
      Itching - overall
      Heartbeat sensations
      Hand tremor
      Hair loss
      Diarrhea
      Breast development in men
      High blood pressure
      Protruding eyes (exophthalmos)

      Signs and tests

      Physical examination may reveal thyroid enlargement or goiter. Vital signs (temperature, pulse, rate of breathing, blood pressure) show increased heart rate. Systolic blood pressure (the first number in a blood pressure reading) may be high.

      Laboratory tests that evaluate thyroid function:

      Serum TSH is usually low
      T3 and free T4 are usually high
      This disease may also alter the results of the following tests:
      Vitamin B-12
      TSI
      Triglycerides
      RT3U
      Radioactive iodine uptake
      Glucose test
      Cholesterol test
      Antithyroglobulin antibody

      Treatment

      Treatment varies depending on the cause of the condition and the severity of symptoms. Hyperthyroidism is usually treated with antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine (which destroys the thyroid and stops the excess production of hormones), or surgery to remove the thyroid.

      If the thyroid must be removed with radiation or surgery, replacement thyroid hormones must be taken for the rest of the person's life.

      Beta-blockers like propranolol are used to treat some of the symptoms including rapid heart rate, sweating, and anxiety until the hyperthyroidism can be controlled.

      Expectations (prognosis)

      Hyperthyroidism caused by Graves disease is usually progressive and has many associated complications, some of which are severe and affect quality of life.

      These include complications caused by treatment such as use of radioactive iodine, surgery, and medications to replace thyroid hormones. However, hyperthyroidism is generally treatable and rarely fatal.

      Complications

      Heart-related complications include rapid heart rate, congestive heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

      Thyroid crisis or storm is an acute worsening of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism that may occur with infection or stress. Fever, decreased mental alertness, and abdominal pain may occur, and immediate hospitalization is needed.

      Hyperthyroidism increases the risk for osteoporosis.
      There may be complications related to surgery, including visible scarring of the neck, hoarseness due to nerve damage to the voice box, and a low calcium level because of damage to the parathyroid glands.

      Complications may be related to replacement of thyroid hormones. If too little hormone is given, symptoms of under-active thyroid can occur including fatigue, increased cholesterol levels, mild weight gain, depression, and slowing of mental and physical activity. If too much hormone is given, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism will come back.

      Calling your health care provider

      Call your health care provider if you have symptoms which could be caused by excessive thyroid hormone production. If the symptoms are associated with a rapid, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, or change in consciousness, go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911).

      Call your health care provider if treatment for hyperthyroidism induces symptoms of under-active thyroid, including mental and physical sluggishness, weight gain, and depression.

      Prevention

      There are no general prevention measures to prevent hyperthyroidism.

  24. QUESTION:
    Why is mercury put in the vaccines and why is sodium fluoride put in the water?
    Also, why is our food being genetically modified in laboratories?

    • ANSWER:
      Not Mercury such as that found in thermostats and old school thermometers. Thimerosal (a mercury salt) WAS in vaccines given to infants, because it is a preservative and disinfectant. The US Food and Drug Administration called for its removal from all vaccines by January of 2000, 10 years ago. NOW the question should be, why is formaldehyde and aluminum STILL found in infant vaccines?

      Sodium fluoride is a by product of the manufacture of aluminum and phosphates (fertilizer) and was pretty ingeniously sold as a way to slow down tooth decay by adding it the public water supplies of the US and other countries. There have been many, many studies detailing that humans who consume fluoride in their water have stronger bones and healthier teeth, but since many of these studies were underwritten by the very industries which SUPPORT the cheap disposal of sodium fluoride into our water supplies, the results of these studies is unsurprising. There are quantifiable downsides. Fluoride is an ingredient in several pest poisons and in the nerve gas Sarin. Fluoride has been shown to collect in the pineal gland and the Environmental Protection Agency has classified SODIUM fluoride as a hazardous material. I quote from the article in Natural news:
      "Generally, most fluoride entering the body is not easily eliminated. It tends to accumulate in the body's bones and teeth. Recently, it has been discovered to accumulate even more in the pineal gland, located in the middle of the brain.

      This consequence of dental fluorosis, WHICH SERIOUSLY HARMS TEETH (my capitals,) from daily fluoridation has been documented. Yet, the American Dental Association (AMA) continues beating a dead horse, promoting fluoride. There is a refusal to admit that instead of preventing tooth decay, fluoride causes even more dental harm.

      The flood of sodium fluoride in water and food also creates other more serious health problems that are not widely publicized, even suppressed. Nevertheless, in addition to fluorosis, independent labs and reputable researchers have linked the following health issues with daily long term intake of sodium fluoride:

      There are several reasons, both good and bad to genetically modify food, it just depends on WHAT those labs are modifying. Adding growth hormones to chicken and cow feed has been happening for decades and there is a causal connection between this practice (designed to make plumper chickens and meatier cows) is causing early mammary gland development in both female AND male adolescents, and also possibly linked to early onset of puberty.
      There is a huge internet Urban Legend about how "KFC" cannot call their product "Chicken" legally anymore, because they are in actuality using a modified creature with no claws and no beaks, blah blah blah. It isn't true of course, but people are so distrustful of their food being altered in ways they cannot detect, these types of rumors find very fertile ground in which to root.

      The upside could be corn which needs much less water to grow and mature, tomatos with dramatically increased shelf lives, etc.

      This question is a good one, but more properly belongs somewhere other than the "Politics" section.

      *Cancer
      *Genetic DNA Damage
      *Thyroid Disruption - affecting the complete endocrine system and leading to obesity
      *Neurological - diminished IQ and inability to focus, lethargy and weariness.
      *Alzheimer's Disease
      *Melatonin Disruption, lowers immunity to cancer, accelerates aging, sleep disorders.
      *Pineal Gland, calcification, which clogs this gland located in the middle of the brain." [End Quote]

      CALCIUM fluoride occurs naturally in water and calcium is used to counteract the effects of fluoride poisoning, leading the medical profession to believe that the calcium in Calcium Fluoride cancels out the harmful effects of the fluoride itself.

  25. QUESTION:
    What would cause a person to loose weight, when they do whatever they can to gain weight?
    I have pretty low body weight. I dont work out, and honestly, i am pretty lazy. Lately, i have been loosing weight, and i dont know why. I have been trying to eat alot extra, with alot of fatty foods, fried foods, 3 full-healthy meals a day, alot of snacks, etc, but i am still loosing weight. Why?

    • ANSWER:
      You should go to the doctor. You could have a hyper thyroid problem. The thyroid glands, located in your neck, control everything in your body.

      I had an underactive thyroid, and gained alot of weight. I have been taking thyroid medication, and all is good now. A friend of mine had the opposite, and he had to take thyroid medication to help him to balance it, since it was working too hard.

      Nothing to worry about if this is the problem. Thyroid problems are very common, and the medication to treat are cheap.

  26. QUESTION:
    When having tonsillitis do you get a lump on the side of the neck?
    The past 4 days the side of my neck and I noticed that it looks slightly swollen and a long lump. I have have minor ear pain and I noticed my tonsils arches are very visible it bugs me. My throat doesn't hurt only a little bit when I scream, just the pain on my neck. Could it be tonsillitis? I've been searching through google, but it just says scary things. Anyone have any idea?

    • ANSWER:
      I can't understand when you say 'pain on my neck'? Is it near the Adam's apple? Right under the Adam's apple is located the thyroid gland. If your thyroid is swollen this can indicate a thyroid problem.

      You should see your doctor and ask for the following blood tests: TSH, FT4, FT3 and most importantly anti-thyroid antibodies.
      Only they can reveal if you have a problem with your thyroid, like Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
      Normal TSH is 0.3-3. (Some doctors still use the out-dated reference range of 0.5-5.5)
      Some doctors are very misinformed and not knowledgeable about thyroid conditions.

      See the symptoms below:
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hyperthyroidism/DS00344/DSECTION=symptoms
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypothyroidism/ds00353/dsection=symptoms
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hashimotos-disease/DS00567/DSECTION=symptoms
      http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com

  27. QUESTION:
    How does Thryriod Disease occur? Is it natural from when you are born or does it occur sometime during life?
    Please It's really important that I know this, for my research paper!

    • ANSWER:
      Thyroid basics
      What is the thyroid gland?
      The thyroid gland is a soft, small, bow-shaped gland, which is located in the neck, below the voice box, or larynx.

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Thyroid function
      The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and produces the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which regulate the rate of metabolism. The thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands at the base of the brain.

      TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), which is secreted by the pituitary gland, travels through the blood to stimulate the production of thyroxine from your thyroid gland.

      T4 controls your metabolism. If there is not enough T4, your body will slow and become hypothyroid. If you have too much T4, your body will speed up and become hyperthyroid

      As T4 has an influence over every cell in your body, you will notice changes.
      T4 also controls growth of the brain in the foetus and linear growth (height) in children.

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      What causes thyroid disease?
      There are many possible causes of thyroid disease. These include:

      •iodine deficiency
      •autoimmune disease
      •an imbalance in T4 production
      •nodules which have formed on the gland
      •benign and malignant (cancer) tumours of the thyroid

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Is thyroid disease common?
      One in 7 Australians will be diagnosed with some form of thyroid disease and women are five times more likely than men to develop a thyroid condition. Thyroid disease, especially hypothyroidism – or an underactive thyroid – becomes more common as we grow older.

      Iodine deficiency has re-emerged in Australia and we can expect more people to suffer from swelling and enlargement of the thyroid gland, also known as ‘goitre’.

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Diagnosing thyroid disease
      Thyroid disease can be difficult to diagnose, due to many symptoms being similar to those of other conditions. Your doctor may:

      •palpate, or feel, your neck for any sign of swelling
      •check your heart rate and blood pressure
      •run blood tests for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),T4 and T3, antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies and antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies
      •use thyroid ultrasound to measure the size, shape and texture of the gland and to detect any nodules that may be present
      •perform a CT scan to measure thyroid function
      •use fine needle biopsy to diagnose nodules or identify tissue change

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Treating thyroid disease
      Thyroid disease generally requires lifelong management. Your GP may refer you to an endocrinologist, who is a thyroid specialist. Regular blood tests and ultrasound scans may be necessary to monitor your thyroid function or thyroid hormone levels.

  28. QUESTION:
    My grandmother is 95 years old and is producing to much calcium which is causing dehydration?
    What could be causing the excessive calcium?

    • ANSWER:
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      Hyperparathyroidism Index
      Glossary
      Find a Local Doctor

      Hyperparathyroidism
      View the Hyperthyroidism Slideshow Pictures
      Hyperthyroidism Slideshow Pictures Hyperthyroidism Slideshow Pictures
      Thyroid Symptoms and Solutions Slideshow Pictures Thyroid Symptoms and Solutions

      Introduction to hyperparathyroidism
      What are the parathyroid glands?
      What is hyperparathyroidism?
      Why are calcium and phosphorous so important?
      What causes hyperparathyroidism?
      How common is hyperparathyroidism?
      What are the symptoms of hyperparathyroidism?
      How is hyperparathyroidism diagnosed?
      How is hyperparathyroidism treated?
      Are there any complications associated with parathyroid surgery?
      Are parathyroid imaging tests needed before surgery?
      Which doctors specialize in treating hyperparathyroidism?
      Patient Discussions: Hyperparathyroidism
      Patient Discussions: Hyperparathyroidism
      Find a local Endocrinologist in your town

      Introduction

      Primary hyperparathyroidism is a disorder of the parathyroid glands, also called parathyroids. "Primary" means this disorder originates in the parathyroids: One or more enlarged, overactive parathyroid glands secretes too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). In secondary hyperparathyroidism, a problem such as kidney failure causes the parathyroids to be overactive. This publication focuses on primary hyperparathyroidism.

      What are the parathyroid glands?

      The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized glands located on the thyroid gland in the neck. Occasionally, a person is born with one or more of the parathyroid glands embedded in the thyroid, in the thymus, or located elsewhere around this area. In most such cases, however, the glands function normally.

      Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands are entirely different glands, each producing distinct hormones with specific functions. The parathyroid glands secrete PTH, a substance that helps maintain the correct balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH regulates the level of calcium in the blood, release of calcium from bone, absorption of calcium in the intestine, and excretion of calcium in the urine.

      When the level of calcium in the blood falls too low, the parathyroid glands secrete just enough PTH to restore the blood calcium level.

      Picture of the Parathyroid Glands

      What is hyperparathyroidism?

      If the parathyroid glands secrete too much hormone, as happens in primary hyperparathyroidism, the balance is disrupted: Blood calcium rises. This condition of excessive calcium in the blood, called hypercalcemia, is what usually signals the doctor that something may be wrong with the parathyroid glands. In 85 percent of people with primary hyperparathyroidism, a benign tumor called an adenoma has formed on one of the parathyroid glands, causing it to become overactive. Benign tumors are noncancerous. In most other cases, the excess hormone comes from two or more enlarged parathyroid glands, a condition called hyperplasia. Very rarely, hyperparathyroidism is caused by cancer of a parathyroid gland.

      This excess PTH triggers the release of too much calcium into the bloodstream. The bones may lose calcium, and too much calcium may be absorbed from food. The levels of calcium may increase in the urine, causing kidney stones.

      Much, much more at the site below.

  29. QUESTION:
    What would cause a indoor cat to loose weight rapidly & have weazing sounds when breathing with a dry cough ?
    She is 7 years old now... and this started a few weeks ago!

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry bro. Looks like poor little pussy is going to have to see the guy in the white coat.
      These might be some possibilities:

      1. Cat Hyperthyroidism
      The thyroid is a gland that secretes hormones that regulate the metabolic process, helping the growth process and the normal development of a cat.

      If the thyroid gland is hyperactive, the cat has hyperthyroidism. She'll have an increased heart rate and an unbalanced metabolic process, resulting in weight loss. Hyperthyroidism often goes hand in hand with kidney disease. Hyperthyroidism can be treated by removing the thyroid. You can also opt for drugs that will inhibit the thyroid.

      2. Cat Diabetes
      Diabetes may cause weight loss. Diabetes is caused by the improper function of the endocrine gland. Diabetes type I occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. Diabetes type II occurs the body does not react properly to the insulin.

      In type 1 diabetes, insulin insufficiency means cells don't receive sufficient energy from carbohydrates so, in order to obtain the needed energy, they break down fat.

      Diabetes can be managed by administering insulin shots on a daily basis.

      3. Cat Cancer
      Cat cancer may be of several types: blood cancer, bone cancer or tumors located in different parts of the body. The cancerous cells will attack the body and will cause weight loss, anemia and vomiting. Cancer treatment options are more effective if it's detected in a timely manner, so if your cat loses weight suddenly, go for a check-up.

      4. Pregnancy
      Pregnancy may also be a cause for weight loss. In the earlier stages of pregnancy, the cat experiences symptoms like lack of appetite and vomiting. The weight loss may be visible, however it is not a cause for worry. She'll soon gain more weight. During lactation the cat may also lose some weight.

      5. Irritable Bowel Disease
      Irritable bowel diseases are caused by inflammatory cells that infiltrate the upper or lower intestinal tract. The gastrointestinal tract mucosa will be attacked by the white blood cells or plasma cells and cause irritation, resulting in chronic diarrhea and vomiting.

      IBD is caused by bacteria, food allergies or genetic predisposition. IBD can be treated after the cause of the irritation is detected. A special diet will be prescribed.

      6. Dental Problems
      Dental problems are very painful for cats. They will avoid eating to keep away from the pain. Examine your cat's mouth to see if you can spot any infections or a bad tooth. Keep proper mouth hygiene and wash your cat's teeth to avoid gum disease and cavities.

      7. Insufficient Food Intake
      If your cat's diet does not contain the right nutrients or is insufficient, the cat will lose weight. Make sure your cat gets enough amounts of food that are rich in protein, fatty acids and even include some vitamin supplements, in case your cat lacks appetite.

      Oh well. Sorry. Hey look, I tried? Take him to the vet anyway. I am only STUDYING to be a vet. But it might also be allergies.

  30. QUESTION:
    What is the order of the human body systems?
    Is the skeleton the innermost system? The integumentary (skin) the outermost? Is there a specific order to the layers of the human body system?

    • ANSWER:
      A group of organs functioning as a unit is called a system, or organ system. For example, the stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas are part of the digestive system, and the kidneys, bladder, and connecting tubes constitute the urinary system.

      The following are the major systems of the human body.

      - Cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, or circulatory system, is an organ system that moves substances to and from cells, such as transporting oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials. The human circulatory system consists of the heart, a network of blood vessels, and blood.

      - Digestive system. The digestive system, noted above, breaks down food into molecules that the body can use. The alimentary canal, or digestive tract, begins at the mouth and winds through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, until the anus. The digestive system also includes the liver, located near the stomach in the abdominal cavity. The liver is vital for digesting fats by secreting bile, an emulsifying agent that breaks down fat globules into small droplets. The gallbladder stores and concentrates the bile. The pancreas, also part of the digestive system, secretes pancreatic fluid, which have digestive enzymes for breaking down nutrients.

      - Endocrine system. The endocrine system is a control system that transmits chemical messages within the body using hormones, which are chemicals that are produced in one part of the body to impact cells in another part of the body. Major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, and gonads (the ovary in females, and testis in males). There are also endocrine tissues in such organs as the brain, kidneys, stomach, and pancreas that produce hormones.

      - Immune system. The immune system involves organs and specialized cells that protect the body against pathogens, such as bacteria and viral infections. This system includes barriers to infection, such as skin and the mucus coating of the gut and airways; phagocytic cells that can ingest and digest foreign substances; and anti-microbrial proteins. The stomach also secretes gastric acid that helps to prevent bacterial colonization, while an adaptive immune system response helps to develop immunity against being infected twice by the same pathogen.

      - Integumentary system. The integumentary system includes the skin, hair, nails, and skin glands and their products. This system helps in retention of body fluids, sensing the person's surroundings, regulation of body temperature, elimination of waste products, and offering a protective barrier from the environment outside the body.

      - Muscular system. The muscles, which are attached to the skeletal frame, cause the body to move.

      - Skeletal system. The skeletal system or skeleton provides structural support and protection by means of bones. There are two basic parts, the axial skeleton (spine, ribs, sacrum, sternum, cranium, and about 80 bones in all) and the appendicular skeleton (bones of the arms, pelvis, legs, and shoulders, totaling 126 bones in all). While at birth a human has about 350 bones, the adult body has about 206 bones, due to the fusing of some bones.

      - Lymphatic system. The lymphatic system collects the blood plasma lost from the circulatory system as lymph and returns it to the circulatory system.

      - Respiratory system. The respiratory system consists of the lungs, airways, and respiratory muscles that mediate the movement of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) into and out of the body. Involved in this system are external respiration (exchange of gases between atmosphere and blood), and internal respiration (exchange of gases between cells of the body and the blood).

      - Nervous system. The nervous system functions in collecting, transferring, and processing information via cellular communication involving nerve cells, or neurons. The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system and the nerves that radiate out to the rest of the body comprise the peripheral nervous system. The human brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons.

      - Reproductive system. The reproductive system involves a group of specialized organs that produce, store, and release gametes for reproduction.

      - Urinary system. The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and carries urine. This system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra.

      Wish You Best Of Luck !

  31. QUESTION:
    What is the order of the human body systems?
    Is the skeleton the innermost system? The integumentary (skin) the outermost? Is there a specific order to the layers of the human body system?

    • ANSWER:
      A group of organs functioning as a unit is called a system, or organ system. For example, the stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas are part of the digestive system, and the kidneys, bladder, and connecting tubes constitute the urinary system.

      The following are the major systems of the human body.

      - Cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, or circulatory system, is an organ system that moves substances to and from cells, such as transporting oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials. The human circulatory system consists of the heart, a network of blood vessels, and blood.

      - Digestive system. The digestive system, noted above, breaks down food into molecules that the body can use. The alimentary canal, or digestive tract, begins at the mouth and winds through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, until the anus. The digestive system also includes the liver, located near the stomach in the abdominal cavity. The liver is vital for digesting fats by secreting bile, an emulsifying agent that breaks down fat globules into small droplets. The gallbladder stores and concentrates the bile. The pancreas, also part of the digestive system, secretes pancreatic fluid, which have digestive enzymes for breaking down nutrients.

      - Endocrine system. The endocrine system is a control system that transmits chemical messages within the body using hormones, which are chemicals that are produced in one part of the body to impact cells in another part of the body. Major endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, and gonads (the ovary in females, and testis in males). There are also endocrine tissues in such organs as the brain, kidneys, stomach, and pancreas that produce hormones.

      - Immune system. The immune system involves organs and specialized cells that protect the body against pathogens, such as bacteria and viral infections. This system includes barriers to infection, such as skin and the mucus coating of the gut and airways; phagocytic cells that can ingest and digest foreign substances; and anti-microbrial proteins. The stomach also secretes gastric acid that helps to prevent bacterial colonization, while an adaptive immune system response helps to develop immunity against being infected twice by the same pathogen.

      - Integumentary system. The integumentary system includes the skin, hair, nails, and skin glands and their products. This system helps in retention of body fluids, sensing the person's surroundings, regulation of body temperature, elimination of waste products, and offering a protective barrier from the environment outside the body.

      - Muscular system. The muscles, which are attached to the skeletal frame, cause the body to move.

      - Skeletal system. The skeletal system or skeleton provides structural support and protection by means of bones. There are two basic parts, the axial skeleton (spine, ribs, sacrum, sternum, cranium, and about 80 bones in all) and the appendicular skeleton (bones of the arms, pelvis, legs, and shoulders, totaling 126 bones in all). While at birth a human has about 350 bones, the adult body has about 206 bones, due to the fusing of some bones.

      - Lymphatic system. The lymphatic system collects the blood plasma lost from the circulatory system as lymph and returns it to the circulatory system.

      - Respiratory system. The respiratory system consists of the lungs, airways, and respiratory muscles that mediate the movement of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) into and out of the body. Involved in this system are external respiration (exchange of gases between atmosphere and blood), and internal respiration (exchange of gases between cells of the body and the blood).

      - Nervous system. The nervous system functions in collecting, transferring, and processing information via cellular communication involving nerve cells, or neurons. The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system and the nerves that radiate out to the rest of the body comprise the peripheral nervous system. The human brain contains approximately 100 billion neurons.

      - Reproductive system. The reproductive system involves a group of specialized organs that produce, store, and release gametes for reproduction.

      - Urinary system. The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and carries urine. This system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra.

      Wish You Best Of Luck !

  32. QUESTION:
    What causes the "knot in the throat" sensation?
    I know there must be physiological and emotional reasons for the "knot in the throat" feeling... I'd like to know what are those reasons. And what is really happening in your body? Is it some muscle contracting or something? I'd appreciate detailed explanations.

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid gland, located in the throat, which is related to will-power and the psyche.

      .

  33. QUESTION:
    I don't understand, why does the thyroid effect peoples weight but it's in the throat?
    I don't understand it. I just found out there is something could be wrong with my brother's thyroid. I understand what it is, where it is but I just can't seem to get it still. Can anyone explain this to me?

    • ANSWER:
      The thyroid is located in your neck just below the "adams apple" (in men).

      It is a "gland" which produces thyroid hormones. These hormones control metabolism, among other things, which is how the body burns energy. This is the reason it can affect your weight if it is not working properly.

      The thyroid is one of many glands in your body, and just happens to be in your neck. Glands are organs which produce substances like hormones and other things (eg, mammary glands produce breast milk) for release in your body.

  34. QUESTION:
    What are the daily tasks of a ultrasound technician?
    I have been thinking of becoming an ultrasound technician for a while now. I just want to get an idea of what working in that field would be like.

    • ANSWER:
      Ultrasound definitely entails more than just scanning pregnant women. We can also image the salivary glands, thyroid, carotid vessels of the neck, breasts, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, uterus, ovaries, testicles, prostate gland, aorta and vena cava, large arteries and veins in the arms and legs....have I missed anything? We can also ultrasound a palpable lump (one that can be felt from the outside of the body) which is located anywhere on the body. We can do ultrasound on newborn's stomachs to look for pyloric stenosis or the hips to look for dislocation.

      Sonographers also assist the radiologist with more invasive procedures. We do amniocentesis (using ultrasound to guide a needle into the pregnant uterus to remove fluid for testing), paracentisis (needle into abdomen to remove fluids for testing) and thoracentsis (needle into lungs to remove fluid). We assist the radiologist with ultrasound guided biopsies (breast, thyroid and liver). We assist the radiologist with hysterosonography (putting saline solution into the uterus to image the endometrial canal). We do some ultrasounds transabdominally (the transducer or camera outside the body), and others transabdominally or transrectally.

      I work at a free standing imaging center, so we are only open M-F, 8-5. No weekends, no holidays, no evenings, no night, no call. At most hospitals, the ultrasound department is staffed during the day (and sometimes the evenings), and then the sonographers rotate weekends. Most hospitals will make sure a sonographer is available (being on call) 24/7, when the department doesn't have a sonographer on site.

      You will eventually have to deal with finding an anencephalic fetus (brain hasn't developed and the baby WILL die shortly after birth). Finding an early miscarriage or tubal pregnancy is fairly common. But you will also scan women who have been trying for years to become pregnant, and are now carrying a normal pregnancy. You will be part of that excitement. You will find breast cancers in some patients, but then also be present in other cases where a woman finds out that her breast lump is a simple cyst. There are ups and downs.

      The best way to get an idea about the routine of a sonographer is to do an observation in an imaging department. Until you witness a department, you won't really have a good idea if this is a career for you or not. Best wishes....

  35. QUESTION:
    What gland stimulates growth and stimulates secretion of hirmones from other glands?
    in the human endocrine system

    • ANSWER:
      pituitary (pronounced: puh-too-uh-ter-ee) gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. The production and secretion of pituitary hormones can be influenced by factors such as emotions and seasonal changes. To accomplish this, the hypothalamus relays information sensed by the brain (such as environmental temperature, light exposure patterns, and feelings) to the pituitary.

      The tiny pituitary is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands. Among the hormones it produces are:

      growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals
      prolactin (pronounced: pro-lak-tin), which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding
      thyrotropin (pronounced: thigh-ruh-tro-pin), which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
      corticotropin (pronounced: kor-tih-ko-tro-pin), which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones
      The pituitary also secretes endorphins (pronounced: en-dor-finz), chemicals that act on the nervous system to reduce sensitivity to pain. In addition, the pituitary secretes hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.

  36. QUESTION:
    What causes stiffness and tightness in the entire upper abdomen upto the ribs?can this lead to breathlessness?
    Also, I had my cardio tests plus a chest x ray and entire abdominal sonography in the month of October, all results were normal, still I have chest pains, stiffness and tightness.
    I have a constant fear of having a heart attack or a severe problem related to my lungs. I have developed this fear for almost 4 months.

    Should I repeat all the tests again??

    • ANSWER:
      Causes of Abdominal Muscle Spasms
      Overworked muscles: Unfamiliar exercise or frequent strenuous activity can cause the abdominal muscles to spasm. This happens because the muscle is being overused, resulting in the muscle's energy loss . This loss of energy causes it to contract suddenly, resulting in muscle spasms. This contraction of the muscle may involve the muscle in totality or only a specific part of it. People who are more at risk of developing muscle spasms due to this reason are athletes, an individual who exercises frequently or has just started exercising, or someone in an occupation that requires vigorous exertion such as construction workers. The exercise that will most likely cause abdominal muscle spasms to manifest is crunches or sit-ups. A muscle can also become overworked with normal daily activities such as shoveling snow, mowing the lawn, or raking grass.

      Dehydration: If the muscles are depleted in water and electrolytes, muscle spasms can occur. This is because proteins in the muscles require a certain amount of water, glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. When these substances are low, their normal function becomes abnormal, which sometimes results in abdominal muscle spasms.

      Kidney Stones: This is an abnormal mass that is present in either the kidneys or urinary tract. This mass is comprised of hard crystalline mineral material. There are a number of factors that contribute to the formation of a kidney stone. These include a decrease in urine volume, excess in a specific substance in the urine, and dehydration. Kidney stones can cause severe pain in the abdomen, back, or groin. This sporadic pain may feel like cramps or muscle spasms. This means the severity of the pain will change frequently, being mild at one instance while unbearable at the next. Other accompanying symptoms include nausea, vomiting, blood in the urine, difficulties urinating, penile pain, and testicular pain.

      Black widow spider bite: A bite from this highly venomous spider can cause abdominal muscle spasms. The first sign of a bite will be the actual bite itself. Given the severe pain induced by this bite, you will be aware of its presence. The other symptoms will manifest in 20-60 minutes after the bite has occurred. The spider's venom affects the victim's nervous system, which results in severe muscle cramps or spasms in the abdomen, shoulder, or back. Nausea, vomiting, chest pain, dizziness, fainting, and weakness sometimes follow. The severity of the spider bite reaction is dependent upon the victim's age and health. Children and the elderly are more at risk of developing a severe reaction to the spider's venom.

      Hypothyroidism: The thyroid is a gland located in the neck that has the function of regulating metabolism hormones. Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid that is not producing enough hormones. Muscle spasms, aches, and tenderness are symptomatic of this medical condition. Other symptoms include fatigue, constipation, sensitivity to the cold, pale skin, hoarse voice, weight gain, brittle nails, and depression. If abdominal muscle spasms coincide with any of these symptoms, then you may have hypothyroidism.

      Other more rare causes of abdominal muscle spasms are diverticulitis, intussusception, hernia, cholecystitis, and bowel obstruction.
      good luck and God bless you

  37. QUESTION:
    What is the diference between a sonogram technician and a radiologist?
    report for school. need a lot of information if possible. thanksss.

    • ANSWER:
      First off, the term "technician" is considered demeaning to those of us who are in this field. The accepted term is ultrasound technologist, sonographer or ultrasonographer. We are the medical professional who actually uses the ultrasound machine to get images of body parts. We scan much more than babies in utero.

      The radiologist is a medical doctor, who has attended and completed medical school, just like any other doctor. The radiologist has special training in interperting and decyphering images of the body. This includes x-rays, mammograms, MRI/CT scans, nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound images. Radiologists also perform interventional studies and biopsies of suspicious areas.

      As I said, ultrasound entails more than just scanning pregnant women. Sonographers can also image the salivary glands, thyroid, carotid vessels of the neck, breasts, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, uterus, ovaries, testicles, prostate gland, aorta and vena cava, large arteries and veins in the arms and legs....have I missed anything? We can also ultrasound a palpable lump (one that can be felt from the outside of the body) which is located anywhere on the body. We can do ultrasound on newborn's stomachs to look for pyloric stenosis or the hips to look for dislocation.

      Sonographers also assist the radiologist with more invasive procedures. We do amniocentesis (using ultrasound to guide a needle into the pregnant uterus to remove fluid for testing), paracentisis (needle into abdomen to remove fluids for testing) and thoracentsis (needle into lungs to remove fluid). We assist the radiologist with ultrasound guided biopsies (breast, thyroid and liver). We assist the radiologist with hysterosonography (putting saline solution into the uterus to image the endometrial canal). We do some ultrasounds transabdominally (the transducer or camera outside the body), and others transabdominally or transrectally.

      The first answer is correct....radiologists make much more than sonographers. But radiologists also have a huge debt from spending 12 years in medical school. Sonographers can usually complete their entire education in 3 years or so, at a fraction of the cost.

      For average sonographer's yearly income, listed by each of the fifty states, in 2007:

      https://www.asrt.org/media/pdf/research/wss2007/wss07annualcompensation.pdf

      For radiologists:

      http://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Radiologist/Salary

  38. QUESTION:
    What is the typical day of an ultrasound tech?
    I think this is what I want to do as a career! It really interests me. However, Im going to have a baby soon, so I would like to do this part time. Is this possible to do like 25 hours a week? My husband is military, so I dont need the benefits.

    ALSO, is there any place that I can get certified or liscensed in less that two years?

    • ANSWER:
      Many hospital imaging departments or free standing imaging centers will hire part time workers, so it is very possible to find a job with limited hours. Some OB/GYN offices employ RDMS licensed sonographers to work in their offices, and these are almost always part time positions. But, getting licensed in less than two years will be tough, unless you have some college level courses already completed.

      When thinking about entering an ultrasound program, you need not be concerned so much about certificate vs. degree. What is important is that you go to an ACCREDITED program, whether it is college or hospital based. An accredited program allows you to take your registry (licensing) exams upon graduation. Once you get licensed, you will never be asked about your schooling again. An employer does not care what route you take to get licensed, they just want you to have that license.

      Don't waste your time or money on a NON-accredited program. Upon completion and graduation from a NON-accredited program, you must work in the field of sonography for a full year prior to taking your licensing examinations. But, you will have a hard time finding an employer to hire you, unless you are licensed.

      I would suggest you observe an imaging department to get an idea of what ultrasonographers do daily. There is much more to it than scanning pregnant women. Most people have no idea how much is involved in this career!

      Ultrasound definitely entails more than just scanning pregnant women. We can also image the salivary glands, thyroid, carotid vessels of the neck, breasts, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, spleen, kidneys, urinary bladder, uterus, ovaries, testicles, prostate gland, aorta and vena cava, large arteries and veins in the arms and legs....have I missed anything? We can also ultrasound a palpable lump (one that can be felt from the outside of the body) which is located anywhere on the body. We can do ultrasound on newborn's stomachs to look for pyloric stenosis or the hips to look for dislocation.

      Sonographers also assist the radiologist with more invasive procedures. We do amniocentesis (using ultrasound to guide a needle into the pregnant uterus to remove fluid for testing), paracentisis (needle into abdomen to remove fluids for testing) and thoracentsis (needle into lungs to remove fluid). We assist the radiologist with ultrasound guided biopsies (breast, thyroid and liver). We assist the radiologist with hysterosonography (putting saline solution into the uterus to image the endometrial canal). We do some ultrasounds transabdominally (the transducer or camera outside the body), and others transabdominally or transrectally.

      I work at a free standing imaging center, so we are only open M-F, 8-5. No weekends, no holidays, no evenings, no night, no call. At most hospitals, the ultrasound department is staffed during the day (and sometimes the evenings), and then the sonographers rotate weekends. Most hospitals will make sure a sonographer is available (being on call) 24/7, when the department doesn't have a sonographer on site.

      You can find a list of accredited schools in your area, by searching "diagnostic medical sonography" and your state at the following site. There are links provided for each program, which will give you additional information (including course duration and prerequisite courses):

      http://www.caahep.org/Find_An_Accredited_Program.aspx

      Many people, myself included, go to school to become a radiologic technologist, before continuing to ultrasound school. In fact, it can be difficult to get into u/s school without the RT license. There are many more choices for schools for x-ray in most states. You can find them here, by searching “radiography“ and your state:

      http://www.jrcert.org/cert/Search.jsp

      The pay for ultrasound technologists will vary, depending on experience and geographical location. The American Society of Radiologic Technologists just did a large salary survey, in 2007. You can see how much a RT and/or ultrasound technologist averaged, per year, in your state here:

      https://www.asrt.org/media/pdf/research/wss2007/wss07annualcompensation.pdf

      You can divide the yearly salaries by 2080 (40 hours per week X 52 weeks) for an average hourly salary. Best wishes!!!

  39. QUESTION:
    I have a sister that the Doctors are wanting to remove her thyroid?
    This doctor says her tyyroid is causing her brittle bones, and asthma, and all her other health conditions. Can that be true or does she need to see another doctor

    • ANSWER:
      Hopefully, your sister's seen an endocrinologist - a doctor who specializes in thyroid disorders.

      A thyroidectomy is the surgical removal of all or some of the thyroid gland. This surgery is used to treat benign thyroid nodules and large goiter (noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid). In most cases, thyroidectomy is the preferred treatment of thyroid cancer. A total thyroidectomy removes the entire thyroid, whereas a hemi-thyroidectomy removes a portion of the gland.

      The thyroid gland is located in the front section of the neck. The gland captures iodine that has been absorbed into the blood from food and uses the iodine to produce thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones play a major role in regulating the body’s metabolism, the body’s process of using food for energy and growth.

      Please take a look at more information on this topic below. I think it will answer many of your questions:

      http://cancer.health.ivillage.com/endocrinesystemcancer/thyroidectomy.cfm

      Good luck : )

  40. QUESTION:
    How can I combat reactive depression caused by overactive thyroid?
    I have hyperthyroid which in turn leads to reacitve depression.
    I literally feel like im loosing my mind and do really irrational things that put a strain on my long term relationship
    I get very paronoid, and cry alot
    what can i do (aside from go to the Gp)?

    • ANSWER:
      When This Gland Goes Haywire, Watch Out
      Julie Amato of Simsbury, Conn., had been a high-energy person. "I ran five to seven miles a day and was always the one to say 'Go, go, go.'"

      But things changed after the birth of her first child, and Amato, 35, felt "horrible. My hands and feet were always cold. My periods were much heavier, and I had so little energy that just getting up the stairs was a major effort. I thought I was dying."

      Finally she saw a doctor "who took one look at me and said, 'It's your thyroid.'" A blood test confirmed Amato was hypothyroid - her thyroid gland was underactive, producing too little thyroid hormone. With daily treatment her energy level has gradually increased."

      Ann Maltz, 37, of Houston was also a new mother. "I was jittery, my hair was falling out, I wasn't sleeping and my heart seemed to be racing," she remembers. Like Amato - and many other women - Maltz blamed the stress of motherhood.

      One day, while she was going downstairs, her legs slid out from under her. She was too weak to stand. From the swollen appearance of her neck, Maltz's physician suspected a thyroid problem. Tests confirmed it: Her thyroid was on fast-forward, producing too much hormone. Maltz now feels fine after treatment for hyperthyroidism.

      "AFTER diabetes, thyroid disease is the most common glandular disorder," says Dr. Martin Surks, head of endocrinology at New York City's Montefiore Hospital. At least 11 million North Americans - one million of them Canadians - are being treated for thyroid conditions, usually an underactive (hypo-) or overactive (hyper-) gland.

      Because some early symptoms are easily ignored or mistaken for signs of anxiety disorders or aging, millions of cases of thyroid disease remain undiagnosed. "Some patients go from doctor to doctor for years complaining of irritability, heart palpitations, difficulty concentrating, even memory problems, before they finally get help," says neuropsychologist Robert Stern, director of neurobehavioural research at Rhode Island Hospital in Providence.

      Women are four times as likely as men to develop thyroid problems, probably because they're more prone to the malfunction that underlies the majority of cases. Essentially, their immune systems, failing to recognize the thyroid gland as part of the body, send antibodies to attack it.

      The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck over the trachea, or windpipe. Its job is to extract iodine from blood to produce two hormones - thyroxine and triiodothyronine - that regulate the energy use of virtually every cell and organ in the body. When your thyroid becomes underactive or overactive, here's what to watch for - and do.

      UNDERACTIVE glands are twice as prevalent as overactive ones. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disorder called Hashimoto's disease, named for the Japanese physician who first recognized it in 1912.

      In addition, five to eight percent of women develop hypothyroidism soon after giving birth. While this pregnancy-related condition is usually temporary and often doesn't require treatment, some new mothers may need to take thyroid hormone indefinitely.

      Radiation therapy to the head or neck, pituitary tumours, or certain drugs, such as lithium for psychiatric ailments and the heart drug amiodarone (Cordarone), can also lead to hypothyroidism.

      Whatever the cause, an underactive thyroid leaves the body running in slow motion. Changes may include fatigue, feeling cold, diminished concentration and memory, and weight gain.

      In time the symptoms become worse: dry skin and brittle nails, constipation, muscle aches or cramps, slow heart rate and, in women, longer menstrual periods with heavier flow. Because the disease brings about irregular ovulation, untreated women may have trouble conceiving and have a higher-than-normal rate of miscarriage and premature delivery.

      Depression also results from hypothyroidism. Up to 20 percent of all chronic-depression cases may be associated with low production of thyroid hormones. A University of North Carolina study found that among women with mildly decreased thyroid function, the rate of those who had suffered depression at least once in their lives was almost three times as great (56 percent versus 20 percent) as among those with normal thyroid function. Often, unfortunately, patients who are treated for depression do not first get thyroid tests.

      There's no way to cure an underactive thyroid, but treatment can be as simple as a pill-a-day lifetime hormone replacement. Determining the right medication and dose, though, may require experimenting. Too much thyroid hormone increases risk of bone loss, osteoporosis and cardiac arrhythmia; too little can lead to mild high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol levels.

      Sometimes treatment for an underactive thyroid may even create the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and vice versa. A San Jose, Calif., woman was told she had Hashimoto's disease, and a synthetic thyroid hormone was prescribed. "One day," she says, "my heart started racing and my head was pounding. I thought I was having a stroke." It turned out that the dose was too high and brought on symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Now that her dosage has been adjusted, she is fine.

      "Even a small medication mistake may have consequences, especially if you become hypothyroid at 25 or 30 and aren't checked at least yearly to make sure the dose is right," says endocrinologist Reed Larsen, chief of the thyroid division at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital.

      The main cause of an overactive gland is another autoimmune disorder, Graves' disease, named for the 19th-century Irish physician who was one of the first to describe it.

      Symptoms are the flip side of hypothyroidism: rapid heartbeat, nervousness and irritability, feeling hot, muscle weakness, softening of the nails, hair loss, more frequent bowel movements, weight loss despite eating as usual, and, for women, shorter menstrual periods with lighter flow. Although some Graves' patients feel supercharged and wired, they may at the same time feel weak and wiped out.

      Many people affected by hyperthyroidism also develop eye problems, including redness, irritation, dryness or swelling. For a small percentage of patients, symptoms include increased pressure on the optic nerve or tissue buildup behind the eyes, causing bulging from the sockets. "It's like having size-ten eyes in size-seven sockets," says Nancy Patterson, executive director of the U.S. National Graves' Disease Foundation.

      Treating an overactive thyroid can also be tricky. There are three alternatives: radioactive iodine to disable the gland, drugs to turn off excess hormone production, or surgery to remove the thyroid, followed by hormone replacement. Most doctors recommend radioactive iodine. For about 90 percent of patients, this treatment also involves the use of thyroid hormones to bring levels back to normal.

      Since Graves' disease can go into remission, a doctor may decide to try other drugs instead. In about five percent of cases, however, the medications cause side effects, including a rash, low-grade fever or joint aches.

      Surgery is usually reserved for hyperthyroid patients who have a large, disfiguring goiter (enlargement of the thyroid) that is not likely to shrink with other treatment and, in some cases, for women with the condition who are either pregnant or who plan to become pregnant. Although the operation is generally safe, there's a small risk of injury to the parathyroid glands (four tiny glands adjacent to the thyroid) or vocal cords.

      Blood tests can diagnose thyroid disorders. The most sensitive test measures thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), secreted by the pituitary gland. When the thyroid is underactive, TSH levels will be high; low TSH levels signal an overactive thyroid.

      A proper thyroid test measures both TSH and the principal thyroid hormone, thyroxine. There are also blood tests for the antibodies found in Hashimoto's and Graves' diseases.

      Unless you have a thyroid nodule - a distinct lump on an otherwise normal gland - further testing may not be necessary. Although thyroid cancer is rare (about 1,100 Canadian cases a year), a nodule might be cancerous, and for this reason a scan, sonogram or biopsy is appropriate. A history of radiation exposure, especially to the head or neck, is a primary risk factor for thyroid cancer.

  41. QUESTION:
    How can a thin person lose weight?
    I am on the average/thin side and was wanting to lose around 5kg & tone up. My question is, why do obese people lose weight quicker without drastically changing their eating/ exercise habits, and will I have to exercise harder & diet more extremely to lose weight?

    • ANSWER:
      Read these carefully & do it sincerely, so many colums are there, you have to choose which is you like regarding exercises & food.

      When mother Nature has provided us with such a simple and easy treatment to cure diseases and even to avoid them we all must follow the instructions given by her. These Therapies only help Nature to cure us. Let us not ignore Nature in our mad pursuit of science. THIS NATURE'S 'DO IT YOURSELF' ACUPRESSURE THERAPY ITSLEF IS A SCIENCE AND NOT A MATTER OF BELIEF. Try this Therapy sincerely and regularly for at least 15 days and observe its wonderful and amazing result.

      Obesity : This is due to :

      1. Malfunctioing of Thyroid/Parathyroid gland and late on other endocrine
      glands e.g. malfunctioning of Pineal gland leads to retention of water and
      excess water in the body and leads to excess fat.

      2. Underworking of Sex glands mainly in ladies after delivery of a child.

      3. Overeating i.e. taking more calories than required by the body.

      C U R E :

      Take minimum 3 liters water in a day.

      Take Acupessure treatment on all endocrine glands twice daily.

      2. During pregnancy and after delivery, take treatment on all the endrocrine
      glands. After delivery, increae heat in the body, take the acupressure
      treatment.

      3. Drink charged gold/silver/copper water daily two glasses reduced from 4
      glasses.

      4. Drink hot to lukewarm water only during the day and always after meals.

      5. In the morning in one glass of hot water add juice of half a lemon and one
      tablespooful of honey. Drink it. That will reduec the desire to eat/drink
      sweets.

      6. Chew food at least 15 minutes

      7. Drink 3 to 5 cups of green juice a day adding 1 teaspoonful of health drink
      to each cup. This will help to reduce the body very fast WITHOUT ANY SIDE
      EFFECTS.

      8. Eat plenty of salads adding 100 grams of sprouted cereals like Mung. Also
      eat two seasonal fruits + 1 glass of buttermilk.

      9. Avoid all food if possible. However, in spite of the above diet, if you
      feel very hungry, take preparations of only wheat or only rice. That will
      rduce the intake of food. But eat this food only when you are very hungry.

      10. Do Pranayam + Ling Mundra + Jogging+Skipping+swimming + Acupressure.

      NOTE :

      EXCESS WEIGHT :

      In the case of females,damage to endocrine glands of Thyroid/Parathyroid is very common. Moreover, their Sex glands are damaged during pregnancy or delivery because of worry. And so when these two endocrine glands do not function properly, these women start putting on weight more around the waist. Because of damage to these two endocrine glands, sometimes even Pineal gland is damaged and so there is more retention of water in the body, which is also one of the reasons for excess weight.

      When such patients come, their obese figure obviously shows their problem which can be confirmed by pressing on point nos. 8, 11 to 15 and no. 3. At this time of checking, it is advisable to check other endocrine glands too, so you can locate any further damage, if any. for cure, first it is necessary to treat these two endocrine glands for 15/20 days and only then start dieting and treatment on not only these two endocrine glands but also on the other endocrine glands. I have treated many cases,where the weight loss was from 2/3 kgs to 10 kgs per month. Once the weight has reached normal then ask the patients to continue Acupressure treatment and they will be able to maintan their weight and pleasing figure.

  42. QUESTION:
    What age do you think you stop getting self conscious and embarrassed about periods?
    When did you stop caring and be okay with having to tell someone about it even? I hate it so much....

    • ANSWER:
      Because, U can lead a very healthy life unto death. Why & How?
      MENSES*
      1. Every young girl/spinster/woman must know the significance of Menses cycles, regularity of maintenance with the aid of acupressure techniques & to maintain ‘the best of woman’s health’ for life. The success depend up on the extent of compliance of all stipulated instructions.
      Menses------- is nothing but the God's Special gift given to the female. It is one of the routes of excretion of toxins, pus cells, bad blood, bacteria, viruses, hormonal discharges, etc.
      So long as a female passes through regular menses right from puberty to menopause, she will be well balanced, pretty with natural and healthy glow, good moods of love and affection, excellent immunity/disease resistance power, excellent growth in height up to 21st birthday, etc.
      Irregular periods/heavy periods may be an offshoot of hormonal imbalance, psychological disturbances, indiscriminate consumption of birth control pills, steroids for other causes like allergy, thyroid problems, asthma/bronchitis, etc.
      By and large, the menses cycle ranges from 3 weeks to 5 weeks as and when it is regular. In certain ladies, it is not regular. It can be regulated just in 5 days.
      How to develop aesthetically designed Big Boobs & to prevent breast cancer for life?
      Aesthetically designed boobs 'for a girl' are very beautiful and a source of inspiration for everyone. They can as well be good source of nourishment/nutrition and ready made antibodies for her kids. It is a natural gift to the female given by the God and it shall as well keep herself and her husband to enjoy free sex within her own wedlock. If the female is intelligent, to be well-secured, she can protect all her virtues and nature's gifts given by Him, to her own advantage vis-a-vis her husband and her progeny.
      [a]. Ur [Menses related gonads]-remote control-Acupressure points are located in Ur wrists and ankles on both sides to be activated for regulating Ur menses cycle. Remote control acu points of 'breasts' are located in the ‘middle’ of Ur dorsal side of palms, where U can see nails. Massage on all these points, with Ur thumbs, for 2 minutes daily morning & evening.
      By virtue of regular menses cycles, girls may grow in height up to 21st birth day with aesthetically designed boobs, the study says
      [b]. Eat dry/raw coconut + jaggery, sweets and Laddu made of dry fruits daily one or two. They ensure good strength to the boobs vis-a-vis big size. Hence, most of the Indian women don’t have the problem of small boobs.

      3. Acupressure & Natural Remedies may solve Ur problem of irregular Menses.
      ACUPRESSURE TECHNIQUES:

      Utility—Blocked energy + toxins shall be moved from all Ur internal organs to purge in the normal drainage system, i.e., urine, feces, sweat, cough, menses[ladies], vomiting and all the organs shall function upto optimal levels.

      With ur thumb, press ur/his/her palms and soles, wrists and ankles on both sides. Suppose pain is felt while pressing a particular point in the palm/sole, u have to press the surrounding area—just like u r pumping out air from that painful point. The blocked energy in any internal organ, be it lungs, heart, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, liver, etc., shall be released along with toxins if any. As a last point u must press middle part of each palm/sole; so that toxins, if any, shall be excreted through urine without affecting the kidneys.
      It should be done in an empty stomach or 2 hours after meals. With this, all the endocrine glands and their hormonal secretions shall be regulated. All internal organs shall function up to optimal levels. Ur entire immune system gets invigorated to produce antibodies.

      •2. PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to join ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health problem.

      •Source:
      'Health In Ur Hands' by Dr.Devendra Vora,D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P., an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.

  43. QUESTION:
    Can you explain exactly what happens in a teenage girls first physical?
    Can you explain exactly what happens in a teenage girls first physical?
    please and thankyou
    P.S. do they do anything done there?

    • ANSWER:
      "First, the examiner will observe the patient's appearance, general health, and behavior, along with measuring height and weight. The vital signs-including pulse, breathing rate, body temperature, and blood pressure-are recorded.

      With the patient sitting up, the following systems are reviewed:

      * Skin. The exposed areas of the skin are observed; the size and shape of any lesions are noted.

      * Head. The hair, scalp, skull, and face are examined.

      * Eyes. The external structures are observed. The internal structures can be observed using an ophthalmoscope (a lighted instrument) in a darkened room.

      * Ears. The external structures are inspected. A lighted instrument called an otoscope may be used to inspect internal structures.

      * Nose and sinuses. The external nose is examined. The nasal mucosa and internal structures can be observed with the use of a penlight and a nasal speculum.

      * Mouth and pharynx. The lips, gums, teeth, roof of the mouth, tongue, and pharynx are inspected.

      * Neck. The lymph nodes on both sides of the neck and the thyroid gland are palpated (examined by feeling with the fingers).

      * Back. The spine and muscles of the back are palpated and checked for tenderness. The upper back, where the lungs are located, is palpated on the right and left sides and a stethoscope is used to listen for breath sounds.

      * Breasts and armpits. A woman's breasts are inspected with the arms relaxed and then raised. In both men and women, the lymph nodes in the armpits are felt with the examiner's hands.While the patient is still sitting, movement of the joints in the hands, arms, shoulders, neck, and jaw can be checked.

      Then while the patient is lying down on the examining table, the examination includes:

      * Breasts. The breasts are palpated and inspected for lumps.

      * Front of chest and lungs. The area is inspected with the fingers, using palpation and percussion. A stethoscope is used to listen to the internal breath sounds.

      The head should be slightly raised for:

      * Heart. A stethoscope is used to listen to the heart's rate and rhythm. The blood vessels in the neck are observed and palpated.

      The patient should lie flat for:

      * Abdomen. Light and deep palpation is used on the abdomen to feel the outlines of internal organs including the liver, spleen, kidneys, and aorta, a large blood vessel.

      * Rectum and anus. With the patient lying on the left side, the outside areas are observed. An internal digital examination (using a finger), is usually done if the patient is over 40 years old. In men, the prostate gland is also palpated.

      * Reproductive organs. The external sex organs are inspected and the area is examined for hernias. In men, the scrotum is palpated. In women, a pelvic examination is done using a speculum and a Papamnicolaou test (Pap test) may be taken.

      * Legs. With the patient lying flat, the legs are inspected for swelling, and pulses in the knee, thigh, and foot area are found. The groin area is palpated for the presence of lymph nodes. The joints and muscles are observed.

      * Musculoskeletel system. With the patient standing, the straightness of the spine and the alignment of the legs and feet is noted.

      * Blood vessels. The presence of any abnormally enlarged veins (varicose), usually in the legs, is noted.

      In addition to evaluating the patient's alertness and mental ability during the initial conversation, additional inspection of the nervous system may be indicated:

      * Neurologic screen. The patient's ability to take a few steps, hop, and do deep knee bends is observed. The strength of the hand grip is felt. With the patient sitting down, the reflexes in the knees and feet can be tested with a small hammer. The sense of touch in the hands and feet can be evaluated by testing reaction to pain and vibration.

      * Sometimes additional time is spent examining the 12 nerves in the head (cranial) that are connected directly to the brain. They control the sense of smell, strength of muscles in the head, reflexes in the eye, facial movements, gag reflex, and muscles in the jaw. General muscle tone and coordination, and the reaction of the abdominal area to stimulants like pain, temperature, and touch would also be evaluated."

  44. QUESTION:
    Does sitting infront of the computer continuously decreases your height?
    I've been sitting infront of the computer these days and it seems like my height have decreased.Does it have anything to do with my spine getting compressed while sitting all these days.I mean I was sitting continuous like for 6-8 hours.What can I do to increase my height?I was 5'7 and now I'm like 5'6 and a half or something.

    Does hanging help to increase my height?If yes,when all should I hang and for how many mins?

    • ANSWER:
      LOL @ hanging to increase your height and for how many minutes (that's not going to work.)

      You're actually taller than the average Indian male (165.3 cm (5' 5") according to http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/height-chart.shtml

      If you've got 5,000 burning a hole in your pocket you can make a trip here to the U.S. and get some surgery to make you taller...lol
      "Unfortunately, other bones within the body finish growing by the end of puberty. If you're unhappy with your height by the age of 20, Mother Nature is unlikely to offer much help, though modern science may be able to give you the boost you're looking for. Limb-lengthening surgeries require doctors to break bones in the legs, and then insert spacer rings in the spaces between the broken bones. By turning these rings, you can widen the gaps between the bones, which your body will eventually fill and repair. This type of surgery comes with a steep price, however. The New Jersey Institute of Technology reveals that one student who underwent this procedure in 2008 spent 5,000 and endured 6 months of significant pain to gain 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) in height [source: Florida].

      4 possible causes of 'Decrease in height':

      1. Osteoporosis (you're only 19 years old so I seriously doubt that's the problem)

      2. Compression Fracture of the Back
      what causes it: Osteoporosis a condition that causes thinning of the bone tissue and loss of bone density. it is the most common cause of compression fractures of the back. It usually affects older men and women.

      Other possible causes of compression fractures of the back include:

      physical trauma to your back
      a tumor that either originates in your spine or spreads to your spinal area (relatively rare)

      3. Hypercalcemia
      what causes it: Your body manages the calcium level in your blood through parathyroid hormone (PTH) and another hormone called calcitonin. Normally, PTH increases when the level of calcium in your blood falls and decreases when your calcium level rises. Your body also makes calcitonin when your calcium level gets too high. When you have hypercalcemia, your body is unable to regulate your calcium level as it normally would. There are several possible causes of this condition.

      Hyperparathyroidism
      Parathyroid glands (four small glands) are located near the thyroid gland in the neck and regulate parathyroid hormone which in turn regulates calcium in the blood. When at least one of your parathyroid glands becomes overly active, the condition is called hyperparathyroidism. This is the leading cause of hypercalcemia, especially in women over 50 years old. It occurs when the glands release too much PTH.

      Lung Diseases and Cancers
      Granulomatous diseases, such as tuberculosis, are lung diseases that can cause your vitamin D levels to rise. This causes more calcium absorption, which increases the calcium level in your blood. Some cancers, especially lung cancer, breast cancer, and blood cancers, can raise your risk for hypercalcemia.

      Medication Side Effects
      Some types of drugs, such as thiazide diuretics, can cause hypercalcemia because less calcium is excreted and more retained in the body. Other drugs, such as lithium, cause more PTH to be released.

      Dietary Supplements
      Taking too much vitamin D or calcium in the form of supplements can raise your calcium level.

      Dehydration
      This usually leads to mild cases of hypercalcemia. When you’re dehydrated, your calcium level rises due to the low amount of fluid you have in your blood.

      4. Hyperparathyroidism

      Symptoms
      Back pain
      Blurred vision (because of cataracts)
      Bone pain or tenderness
      Decreased height
      Depression
      Fatigue
      Fractures of long bones
      Increased urine output
      Increased thirst
      Itchy skin
      Joint pain
      Loss of appetite
      Nausea
      Muscle weakness and pain
      Personality changes
      Stupor and possibly coma
      Upper abdominal pain

      what causes it: When calcium levels are too low, the body responds by increasing production of parathyroid hormone. This increase in parathyroid hormone causes more calcium to be taken from the bone and more calcium to be reabsorbed by the intestines and kidney. When the calcium level returns to normal, parathyroid hormone production slows down.

  45. QUESTION:
    The spatial relationship and basic anatomy of the pituitary and the hypothalamus?
    what is the spatial relationship and basic anatomy of the pituitary and the hypothalamus (no cell descriptions are required).

    where is calcitonin produce?bone marrow?

    • ANSWER:
      Well the pituitary is near the sphenoid bone, it sits below the hypothalamus and its conected to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum. The pituitary has 2 lobes, anterior produces about 6 hormones and the posterior 2 hormones.
      Calcitonin is produced in the parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland, which is located in the neck. Hope that was enough detail.

  46. QUESTION:
    I have a lump towards the top of my throat?
    In the last month a lump has developed in my throat. I am a girl by the way. It is high on in my neck, just about where the skin of the chin turns into the neck. It in the center too and about the size of a nickel and is like a circle coming out of my neck. It's hard and tender and I can always feel it. It's just uncomfortable. I also makes noises when I swallow now...and I never have before...like gulping. I am in high school and I am very uncomfortable with my doctor (family friend) so id rather not go in. My mother has an underactive thyroid gland. But my issue is not where the thyroid is located... Anyone have ideas.

    • ANSWER:
      Better to consult the doctor without hesitation and inhibitions !

  47. QUESTION:
    Can you get postpartum depression 2 months after you give birth?
    I'm not sure if it's just stress from being back at work or what. I am tired all the time, very cranky/moody, overly sensitive, and just don't feel like I'm back to my normal self. I also am having problems remembering certain things and I can't focus very well at work.

    • ANSWER:
      It is possible to have post partum depression 2 month later. But not to get it after two month of being fine. From what you are describing it sounds more like you might have a thyroid disorder. Please call your OB and let them know of the symptoms. Thyroid disorder is quite common in women postpartum and usually does go away on it’s own, but there are cases that need to be treated, it’s fast and painless. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the middle of the lower back. It secretes hormones that control body metabolism, mood, weight and energy levels. During pregnancy the levels of these hormones change and on occasions do not come back to normal post partum.
      Symptoms of thyroid disorder are: fatigue, depression, memory loss, sensitivity to cold, hair loss, decreased libido, poor exercise tolerance, inability to lose weight (in other cases fast weight loss), dry skin. May include insomnia and heart palpitations. Usually thyroid disorder goes unthreaded because it looks so much like postpartum depression. We also think that it’s normal because you are a new mother, but it is really not. The difference is that it lasts longer and you feel more tired.
      If it really does not bother you you can wait for it to go away on it’s own within the next 6-12 month. But if you feel that it is effecting your life talk to your doctor about this possibility. A friend of mine had it, had the treatment and is now feeling like a new person. I had it too but a milder case and did not require to be treated. Good luck.

  48. QUESTION:
    How does thyroid medication help?
    I have not seen my doctor yet, but I'm afraid that I might have a thyroid problem.

    I am 22 and I have some slight hair loss at the top of my head. Another factor is the amount of body hair. These two symptoms alone give me the hint that my testosterone might be too high. I do have other symptoms such as unusual nervousness and irritability, however they aren't my most major concern

    If I was to be on thyroid medication, how would it help? Would the hair on my head grow back? would I lose more body hair?

    • ANSWER:
      If our thyroid isn't functioning the way it should then you are likely having low thyroid hair loss. The thyroid is a small gland located at the base of the neck and its purpose is to produce hormones. These hormones are very important in your over all health. If the thyroid hormones are low, one of the problems you will notice first is your hair falling out. This can be devastating especially if you are female. We tend to think that most men will lose a significant amount of their hair at some point in their life, but when females start seeing hair loss we panic. For women hair plays as big a role in our style as the clothes we wear. Therefore it is natural to be concerned if it starts to seem as though more hair is falling on the floor than what is staying on your head.

      Don't just assume that it is a normal part of aging to lose your hair. Everyone sheds hair daily, with many estimating a loss of approximately 100 stands per day, so don't worry if that is what you are experiencing. If your having more hair loss than what is considered the normal and if the hair loss continues, then you should look further into possible reasons why this is happening. If you are having low thyroid hair loss then you will have to replace the hormones that are no longer being produced by your thyroid or you can take natural supplements that have had great results in jump-starting the thyroid into functioning again.

  49. QUESTION:
    What Control Does The Human Brain Have On The Body?
    Ever wonder why do people who suffer traumatic brain injuries, severe injury to a certain part of the brain, are unable to walk, talk properly, or even more.

    What control does over brain have on the body?
    Explain in detail.
    Ah, humans!
    What I asked was ''the control''.
    Don't answer if you're want to give a stupid answer, just like that old man.

    • ANSWER:
      I have never wondered this on account of the obvious majority control the brain has over the body.

      To answer your question, the brain has close to 100% control over the body.

      The parts of the body which are not under the control of the brain is an easier question to address, as everything else is controlled by the brain:

      Automatic Reflexes are controlled by circuits inside the nervous system and prior to signal transmission to the the brain. An example is when you hit your knee and your leg kicks. Or when you place something in a babies hand and it grasps.

      There are also hormones that are released from glands other than those located in your brain. For example the gonads, Adrenal Glands, Thymus and Thyroid. These hormones may have a direct affect on parts of the body, or they may affect the body via the brain as part of a system of operations.

      Cytokines are protein molecules secreted by various cells in the body and which send signals to other parts (cells) of the body.

  50. QUESTION:
    what important endocrine gland is located in the posterior of the optic chiasm?

    • ANSWER:
      Endocrine Pituitary Gland
      The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in the small, bony cavity (sella turcica) at the base of the brain. Its posterior lobe is connected to a part of the brain called the hypothalamus via the infundibulum (or stalk), giving rise to the tuberoinfundibular pathway. The posterior lobe is thus derived from neural ectoderm while the anterior lobe is derived from oral ectoderm. The anterior pituitary lobe receives releasing hormones from the hypothalamus via a portal vein system. The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating a wide variety of bodily activities, including trophic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. For a while, this led scientists to call it the master gland, but now we know that it is in fact regulated by hormones released from the hypothalamus. It is physically attached to the brain by the pituitary, or hypophyseal stalk connected with the median eminence.
      The pituitary gland is divided into two sections: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The posterior pituitary is, in effect, a projection of the hypothalamus. It does not produce its own hormones, but only stores and releases the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH - also known as vasopressin).
      The anterior pituitary secretes growth hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, endorphins and other hormones. It does this in response to a variety of chemical signals from the hypothalamus, including TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone), DA (dopamine, "prolactin inhibiting factor"/PIF), GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), and GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), which travel to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system from the hypothalamus, down the median eminence, to the anterior lobe. These hormones from the hypothalamus cause release of the respective hormone from the pituitary, i.e. TRH releases TSH, CRH releases ACTH, GnRH releases FSH and LH and GHRH causes the release of GH except for DA, which constantly inhibits the release of prolactin normally. There is also an interaction between the hormones from the hypothalamus, i.e. TRH induces the release of prolactin. The control of release of hormones from the pituitary is in a negative feedback loop. Their release is inhibited by increasing levels of hormones from the target gland on which they act.
      There is also an intermediate lobe in many animals. In adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary, nearly indistinguishable from the anterior lobe. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed to the anterior pituitary.
      Functions of the pituitary are:
      The pituitary gland helps control the following body processes of the pituitary gland are:
      Growth
      Blood pressure
      Some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth
      Breast milk production
      Sex organ functions in both women and men
      Thyroid gland function
      The conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
      Water and osmolarity regulation in the body

where is the thyroid gland located