What Are Normal Thyroid Levels Uk

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What are the chemical reactions involved in the body after taking Eltroxin tablet?
    For last 30 years I have been taking Eltroxin (100 mg) 1.5 tabs daily for my thyroid Problem.I want to know the reactions going on inside my body and if it is leaving any lasting effect.
    Actually I wanted to know the molecular reaction with the medicine inside the body. Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      How does it work?
      Eltroxin tablets contain the active ingredient levothyroxine sodium (previously known simply as thyroxine sodium in the UK). (NB. Levothyroxine is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.) Levothyroxine is the same as the hormone thyroxine, which is produced naturally by the thyroid gland.
      The thyroid gland produces and releases two thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3). Tri-iodothyronine is the more active thyroid hormone, and thyroxine is converted into T3 in various parts of the body. These hormones are responsible for maintaining a normal rate of metabolism in the body.
      When the thyroid gland is unable to produce normal amounts of thyroxine, the level of both thyroid hormones in the blood decreases (hypothyroidism). This results in a reduced rate of metabolism, leading to symptoms such as weight gain, intolerance to cold and tiredness.
      Levothyroxine tablets are given to replace the thyroxine that would normally be produced naturally by the thyroid gland. This returns levels of T3 and T4 to normal.
      Once the thyroid gland becomes unable to produce thyroxine, it will generally not return to normal function. This means that once thyroxine replacement is started, it usually needs to be taken for the rest of a person’s life.
      The daily dose should preferably be taken before breakfast.
      What is it used for?
      Underproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).
      Warning!
      You will need to have regular blood tests to monitor your levels of thyroid hormones while taking this medicine. This will enable your doctor to prescribe you the correct dose to increase levels of your thyroid hormones into the normal range.
      Certain medicines can interfere with blood tests that you have to determine your thyroid hormone levels (thyroid function tests). It is important to inform your doctor of all the medicines you are taking prior to and at the time of blood tests.
      Use with caution in
      Elderly people.
      Heart disease such as angina, heart failure, irregular heartbeats, or history of heart attack.
      Any condition causing decreased function of the adrenal glands.
      Decreased production of all hormones by the pituitary gland (panhypopituitarism).
      Diabetes mellitus.
      Rare disease where there is a problem with the kidneys that causes large amounts of dilute urine to be produced (diabetes insipidus).
      Not to be used in
      Overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland (thyrotoxicosis).
      This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to one or any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor or pharmacist if you have previously experienced such an allergy.If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using this medicine and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.
      Pregnancy and breastfeeding
      Certain medicines should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding. However, other medicines may be safely used in pregnancy or breastfeeding providing the benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the unborn baby. Always inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.
      Levothyroxine can be taken during pregnancy. However, it is important that pregnant women have regular blood tests to monitor their levels of thyroid hormones during the pregnancy. Thyroid hormones can cross the placenta and excessive levels can be harmful to the developing baby, so it is important to ensure that you are taking the correct dose. Most women whose thyroid hormone levels are in the normal range when they fall pregnant will not need any dose adjustments of their levothyroxine. Seek medical advice from your doctor.
      Thyroid hormones pass into breast milk, but in amounts that are too small to affect the nursing baby, or to affect tests for neonatal hypothyroidism. It is safe for women taking this medicine to breastfeed their babies. Seek further medical advice from your doctor.
      Side effects
      Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. Just because a side effect is stated here does not mean that all people using this medicine will experience that or any side effect.
      Side effects caused by levothyroxine usually only occur if your dose is too high. For this reason, you should tell your doctor if you get any of the following side effects:
      chest pain (angina)
      awareness of your heart beat (heart palpitations)
      abnormal heart beats (arrhythmias)
      faster than normal heart beat (tachycardia)
      muscle cramps
      diarrhoea
      vomiting
      shaking, usually of the hands (tremor)
      restlessness
      excitability
      difficulty in sleeping (insomnia)
      headache
      flushing
      sweating
      fever
      intolerance to heat
      muscle weakness
      weight loss.
      The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the medicine's manufacturer.For more information about any other po

  2. QUESTION:
    Health benefits of a Soya dairy free yogurt?
    I eat a lot of the Alpro Soya Yogurts, and was wondering what the Health benefits of a Soya dairy free yogurt would be compared to a normal yogurt? Is Soya good for me?

    • ANSWER:
      The good thing about the Alpro soya foods is that they help to lower your blood cholesterol levels..which is very good for your health as cholesterol clogs up your arteries and can cause strokes and heart problems. Besides that they just taste so flipping good!

      Basically soya is good for you although a small percentage of people are allergic to soya...as like some people are allergic to other food groups.

      Lots more info here...
      http://www.sojanet.com/alpro/UK_en/health_benefits/index.html

      Edit...
      my husband has a thyroid problem as well, but has no problems with soy whatsoever....just how different people react to different foods.

  3. QUESTION:
    What do all these letters mean on my blood test form?
    Hi, I have been given a form from my dr to go for a blood test. He didn't really explain to me what they are testing for though. Just gave me a sheet with all these different letters on it that make no sense.
    Can anyone help me out and tell me what the mean please?
    The letters are
    U & E
    LFT
    LH/FSH
    FBC

    there is also thyroid and glucose levels on there too.

    thanks in advance

    • ANSWER:
      Their are two standards for Blood tests. The USA version is a CBC, complete blood count, while the UK is FBC, Full Blood Count, both are the same. They have basically done the kidney function: U & E, Liver Function: LFT, Full Blood Count: FBC and the others are mentioned. This is what they call a normal screening as they like to have a foundation results, which will be used in the future as a marker, so they can see as you age if their are any changes. Best of Luck

  4. QUESTION:
    What are some things to do for depression other than meds?
    Like home things??? How do you tell the severity level of your depression? Like if its bad enough you need a doctor or if its just a phase?

    I had a baby 10 weeks ago... felt fine for about a month... then everything went wrong. I cry every dat, hate myself and the way I look, all I want to do is sleep in my room alone, I hate tv, radio, going out in public, sometimes I feel like my hubby and son would be better off without me around... Im just going to end up causing my son to have low self esteem adn the same problems I do. I dont know how to get better. I have no health insurance anymore.. it expired. We are looking into me more insurance b ut we are comparing hubbys insurance prices to others... And I cant really afford a doc payment with no insurance.

    So, is there anything I can do at home to make me feel even a little better... I feel like Im at my end...

    anyway.. thanks in advance.

    • ANSWER:
      You are not alone and you are not abnormal! I had post-partum depression on and off for five years, much worse after my second baby. It nearly destroyed me. At that time the only medication on offer was tranquilizers and when I realised I couldn't drive if I took them, I binned them and struggled on. Nowadays low seratonin levels in the brain have been identified as a cause of depression and medications now are much better. BUT there could be something else at work, as it was in my case.

      Get yourself checked for an underactive thyroid. Many new mothers don't get their hormone levels back to normal after baby arrives because that gland in the neck goes wonky. If you have put on a lot of weight quite quickly, are horribly sluggish in the mornings more so than later in the day, feel depressed all the time, weeping and with no motivation - you could be hypothyroid and no amount of dieting or exercise will make the slightest difference. It won't cost you anything to email this lady who can put you in touch with USA websites:

      sheilaturner@tpa-uk.org.uk
      Also try lee.appleyard@blueyonder.co.uk
      I'll be praying for you too. God bless you and your family.

  5. QUESTION:
    in what stage of kidney cancer can you physically feel it?
    just wondering, at what point in the kidney cancer can the person actually feel a lump or be in pain?
    which stage/how bad?

    • ANSWER:
      I had a 10.5cm tumor as part of a 15cm mass that had no overt symptoms ie. I could take off my shirt and the RN/Physician could not feel it. There is no blood test that will detect it. Also I had no pain or
      blood in my urine. I had some mild fatigue but was very active and worked two jobs. I was being treated for a vitamin D deficiency and I had a very slight increase in my calcium level. My physician was testing me for a possible thyroid problem, and the results of that testing came back normal. A CT scan was done - and that's when the whopper tumor was discovered. It was technically a stage 3,
      but within 4mos of my nephrechtomy it had metestazed to my bones, and a few months ago I had to have my right humerusremoved and replaced with a plate and cement...
      My worst systemic pain was when it had spread to my arm ie. it ate up over half my arm bone and cause microfractures to the bone, and my arm bone was on the verge of snapping. I reacted to the anesthesia then too - and lost 50lbs. in body weight. Sometimes a person will not even discover they have kidney cancer until such an advanced state.

      About 3% of all new cancers reported in the USA and the UK are Kidney cancers, so it's somewhat rare. Twice as many men contract it as women. About 1/2 of Kidney cancers involve a defect of the VHL gene. Obesity and Smoking are risk factors It tends to not respond to traditional chemotherapy, but does respond to immunotherapy drugs like interferon. In early stages it is rather easily curable via surgery, which is what is so frustrating. Finding it an early stage cures it, but it's often tough to find.

      Some people have symptoms at an early cureable stage, but quite a few of us don't have any symptoms...so if there's a history in your family and/or you're just concerned, I'd get a CT scan.
      I'm now considered terminal, but if I had not been scanned I would have likely died several months ago. I'm still a fighter, and I'm active, and I haven't given up hope. . I would like to see this cancer defeated - and the key is simply early detection and better ways to detect it.

  6. QUESTION:
    What is the normal levels of TSH during each trimester of pregnancy?

    • ANSWER:
      'Normal' levels or reference ranges vary between trusts in the uk but generally tsh will increase until you give birth. Will be checked along with free T4 to assess thyroid function. If underactive t4 is low in relation to TSH. This needs attention as t4 essential for normal fetal development. If you look at labtestsonline.com you might find some broad ref ranges. Sorry couldnt be more help. Good luck.x

  7. QUESTION:
    I am freezing,but only in the evenings.What is wrong with me?
    Shivering,almost shaking,cold hands,feet,actually my whole body is cold in the evenings.Nothing can warm me up,even shivering under a steamy shower...blood pressure,sugar levels normal..Doctor can not tell me what is happening...Any ideas?Am I the only one with this problem??Please!
    I am 36,non smoker,exercising regulary,never had any health problems...having an active lifestyle.

    • ANSWER:
      Sounds like an underactive thyroid to me.

      Go back to your Dr and ask them to test for this.

      Aldo read this net dr discussion as it may help:
      http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/interactive/discussion/always-cold-t42025-f8.html

  8. QUESTION:
    I have an underactive thyroid gland what are some of the most common side effects?

    the doctor has put me on synthroid and i dont see a difference he has since increased my dosage .75mcg currently
    some times i feel very weird like light headed is the best way i can describe it i have had a lot of other medical tests and have all come back normal has anyone else experienced this

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms of hypothyroidism relate to a general "slowing down" of the body's functions. They include:
      feeling tired and sleeping excessively
      easily feeling the cold
      dry and thickened skin
      coarse, thinning hair and eyebrows and brittle nails
      sore muscles, slow movements and weakness
      depression and problems with memory and concentration
      weight gain
      constipation
      fertility problems and increased risk of miscarriage
      heavy, irregular or prolonged menstrual periods
      There may also be swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck - a goitre.

      Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) - occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This tends to slow down the body's functions. Symptoms include tiredness, constipation and sensitivity to the cold.

      The thyroid gland is found in the neck. It lies in front of the wind-pipe (trachea), above the level of the collar-bones and measures approximately 2 by 4 cm. It secretes hormones, which are chemicals produced by the body to help regulate how cells, and the organs made up of groups of cells, work. Hormones are sometimes called chemical messengers.

      The thyroid hormones are thyroxine (also called T4 because it contains four iodine atoms) and triiodothyronine (also called T3 because it contains three iodine atoms). These are released into the blood stream.

      T3 speeds up the body's metabolism by encouraging the cells, in the muscles or the skin for instance, to work faster or to grow. Most of the T3 in the blood is converted from T4.

      Over- and underactive thyroid
      In hypothyroidism, the thyroid is under active, with too little of the thyroid hormones being released. In contrast, hyperthyroidism occurs when there is over-production of T3 and T4, causing the body's metabolism to "speed up". This results in symptoms such as anxiety and feeling hot, even in cool weather. For more information, please see the separate BUPA factsheet Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).

      Hormone production
      The production of T3 and T4 is regulated by another hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone or thyrotropin) which is made in the pituitary gland (found in the brain). A normal level of TSH is one of the indicators that the thyroid system is working properly.

      Causes of hypothyroidism
      Iodine insufficiency
      The chemical element iodine is a major component of thyroid hormones. Worldwide, a deficiency of iodine in the diet is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. This is much less common in the UK because iodine is contained in salt, which has iodine added to it during manufacture.

      Autoimmune hypothyroidism
      In the UK, and other countries where the amount of iodine in the diet is adequate, the main cause of hypothyroidism is "autoimmune hypothyroidism".

      Antibodies are proteins designed to defend the body from foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. In autoimmune diseases, antibodies attack the body itself. In autoimmune hypothyroidism, antibodies destroy thyroid gland cells preventing the gland from being able to release normal amounts of thyroid hormones.

      A condition known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. It results in a goitre, a swelling of the thyroid gland, that is visible as a lump on the neck. With no goitre the condition may be called atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxoedema.

      Other causes:
      Congenital hypothyroidism (a condition babies are born with) happens when the thyroid gland fails to develop properly or does not produce adequate thyroid hormones. All babies in the UK are screened for this when the baby is 6-8 days old with a blood sample taken from a prick on the heel. With treatment, babies with congenital hypothyroidism develop normally.

      Inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis) due to infection can lead to hypothyroidism. Also, disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, both of which are involved in the overall regulation and production of thyroid hormones, can lead to hypothyroidism.

      Risk factors for hypothyroidism
      Hypothyroidism is more common in older people.
      Women are more likely to be affected than men.
      Autoimmune hypothyroidism is more likely in those who have other conditions resulting from an autoimmune disorder such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo and Addison's disease.
      Some medicines can affect the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. These include lithium carbonate (for bipolar disorder) and amiodarone (for heart rhythm abnormalities).
      Symptoms of hypothyroidism
      The symptoms of hypothyroidism can initially be very mild and develop slowly. It is possible to have some of these symptoms before the amount of thyroid hormone drops below normal.

      This type of mild hypothyroidism is called subclinical hypothyroidism. People affected need to be monitored by their doctor, who will watch out for further symptoms.

      Occasionally, a thyroid problem, such as thyroiditis, can resolve on its own without the need for treatment. However in general, if hypothyroidism is not treated, the symptoms slowly get worse and it becomes more and more difficult to function normally.

      Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
      Many of the above symptoms can be caused by conditions other than underactive thyroid. However, anyone who experiences these symptoms should consult their GP. A doctor will usually discuss symptoms, perform a physical examination and then request some blood tests if he or she suspects hypothyroidism.

      The first step in diagnosing hypothyroidism is to measure TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone).

      When the thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroid hormone, the TSH level is raised. When this abnormality is found, T4 (thyroxine) is also measured, and in autoimmune hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism due to treatment of hyperthyroidism, T4 is low.

      When levels of TSH and thyroid hormones are difficult to interpret, other causes of hypothyroidism may be suspected.

      The diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism is usually confirmed by the presence of particular antibodies in the blood.

      Other blood tests or further investigations may also be needed. These could include an ECG (heart tracing) or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to examine the nature and extent of a goitre.

      Treatment
      Thyroxine (T4) can be given in tablet form. The body is able to convert this to T3 just as it would if the thyroid gland were producing the thyroxine normally. It can take some time to get the dose right. It is usual to start with a low dose, building up gradually every six weeks and adjusting the dose according to TSH levels.

      People usually feel much better once they are taking thyroxine. Side-effects are unusual because a missing hormone is simply being replaced. However, if too much replacement thyroxine is given, symptoms of an overactive thyroid may be experienced.

      People with subclinical hypothyroidism may not have any treatment, though doctors vary in their approach. Some prefer to offer treatment. Others recommend frequent monitoring to see whether overt hypothyroidism (with symptoms) does develop.

      Once the correct dose of thyroxine replacement has been established, it is usual to have annual checks of TSH.

      Pregnancy and hypothyroidism
      The functioning of the thyroid gland can change during pregnancy. In the first half of pregnancy it is normal for the total amount of thyroid hormone to be slightly increased.

      Women with hypothyroidism need more frequent checks during pregnancy, as their thyroxine requirements tend to increase.

      Five percent of women have a mild problem with the thyroid three to six months after delivery. This has an autoimmune cause and can cause hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Although it rarely needs treatment it does mean that thyroid problems are more likely in later life.

      Further information
      British Thyroid Foundation
      0870 7707933
      http://www.btf-thyroid.org

  9. QUESTION:
    What is the *normal* TSH blood level range?
    I'm a bit confused as some websites are saying
    0.3-3.0
    or
    0.5-5.0
    some are even saying 0.3-10.0

    I know mine before removal of half my thyroid was around 1.70, but i'm waiting for results tomorrow to see the new value.
    Just wondering what the actual UK range is for TSH??

    • ANSWER:
      Reference ranges are generally specific to the lab processing your result but the most common range is 0.3 - 4.0 mU/L

  10. QUESTION:
    can you buy thyroid medication over the counter?
    hi there i was just wondering if you could buy this type of medication over the counter.for some time now i have been showingg all the symptoms of having an underactive thyroid.im constantly tired,put on some weight,feeling low etc .i have been to my doctor and he said that my levels thyroid levels are low but i dont need medication. but it has been going on for months and i now get really bad headaches.so i was wondering if you could buy this medication anywhere in the uk.many thanks

    • ANSWER:
      No it's a prescription only medication. If you suspect you have an underactive thyroid then ask your Doctor to do a thyroid function test. If you attempt to take Levothyroxine and you don't actually have an underactive thyroid, it can potentially be life threatening.

      Levothyroxine is taken by people to replace a lacking natural hormone. If you take Levo when your thyroid levels are normal, this will result in your thyroid levels becoming too high leading to hyperthyroidism and even a thyrotoxic state which can cause strokes, seizures and life threatening arrhythmia's- all of which can lead to a coma and death. Do NOT take Levo unless it has been prescribed to you and confirmed that you have an under-active thyroid gland.

  11. QUESTION:
    Does anyone else have mild hypothyroid and difficulty conceiving?
    I live in the UK, where Gps refuse to treat hypothyroid with TSH levels lower than 10. When tested, my TSH levels were 5.05 (mid January) and 4.95 (mid February). They would have considered treating had my second tested TSH stayed above 5.

    I've had every symptom going for hypothyroid for the last 3 years: cold all the time, inactive, low bbt (generally below 36C for around 18 months, with post-ovulatory "highs" of up 36.3C, when I'd feel almost normal again).

    Since learning that my thyroid was a little underactive a few months ago, I've been taking vitamins and supplements (multi Bs, fish oils, cranberry extract, and Siberian Ginseng), and feel A LOT better- pre ovulation temperature has risen to 36.3-36.5.

    But. Still no baby, despite trying for 4 years.

    Has anybody else been in this situation, and how did you resolve it? Also, what is your experience treatment in your various places (how wonderful it is to be able to ask people all over the world a question!)
    And has anyone else out been told their TSH level should be below 2 during their pregnancy? My endocrinologist told me ideally it should be between 1 and 2 to prevent potential neurological delay, and then recommended not treating. Did any of you ladies with treated hypothyroidism have to get your TSH levels below 2 before falling pregnant? And was your doctor really alert to your TSH, T3 and T4 levels during pregnancy?

    • ANSWER:
      I went through the same thing, I was trying to conceive for about a year and went to the Dr's they checked my thyroid and said it was underactive but didn't do anything. So I waited on my next check up which was about 4 months later I went to a different doctor she said that it was underactive and started me on synthroid. I started taking synthroid the lowest dose and about 6-8 months later I finally got pregnant. I think I just had to take it a couple of months to get it straighten out.

  12. QUESTION:
    what is normal level of T3 TRIODOTHYRONINE,T4 thyroxine,and TSH.?
    when thyroid gland is not working properly, and horomone production is less, or person is suffering from hypothyroidom

    • ANSWER:
      TSH levels are tested in the blood of patients suspected of suffering from excess (hyperthyroidism), or deficiency (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormone. Generally, a normal range for TSH for adults is between 0.4 and 5.0 uIU/mL (equivalent to mIU/L), but values vary slightly among labs. The optimal goal TSH level for patients on treatment ranges between 0.3 to 3.0 mIU/L.[4]. The interpretation depends also on what the blood levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are. The National Health Service in the UK considers a "normal" range to be more like 0.1 to 5.0 uIU/mL

      Thyroid hormone tests are blood tests that check how well the thyroid gland is working.

      Normal
      Normal values may vary from lab to lab. Results are usually available within a few days.

      Labs generally measure free T4 (FT4) levels, but also may measure total thyroxine (T4) and T3 uptake (T3U). Results of these thyroid hormone tests may be compared to your thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) results.

      Thyroid hormone tests Total thyroxine (T4): 9.8–22.6 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL) in newborns (1 to 14 days of age)

      5.6–16.6 mcg/dL in babies and older children

      5–14 mcg/dL in adults

      Free thyroxine (FT4): 0.8–2.4 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL)

      Total triiodothyronine (T3): 32–250 ng/dL in newborns (1 to 14 days of age)

      83–280 ng/dL in babies and older children

      80–230 ng/dL in adults

      Free triiodothyronine (FT3): 0.2–0.6 ng/dL

      Free Thyroxine Index (FTI): 7.5–17.5 in newborns (1 to 14 days of age)

      5.0–12.8 in babies and older children

      4.2–13.0 in adults

      Many conditions can change thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor will talk with you about any abnormal results that may be related to your symptoms and medical history.

      High values
      High thyroid hormone levels (hyperthyroidism) may be caused by:

      Diseases of the thyroid gland, such as Graves' disease, thyroiditis, or a goiter that contains one or more abnormal growths (nodules).
      Taking too much thyroid medicine.
      Low values
      Low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) may be caused by:

      Thyroid disease such as thyroiditis.
      Pituitary gland disease.
      Destruction of the thyroid gland by surgery or radiation.
      What Affects the Test
      Reasons you may not be able to have the test or why the results may not be helpful include:

      Taking certain medicines, such as:
      Corticosteroids, estrogen, progesterone, or birth control pills.
      Blood-thinning medicines such as aspirin, heparin, or warfarin (Coumadin).
      Antiseizure medicines such as Dilantin or Tegretol.
      Heart medicines such as amiodarone or propranolol.
      Lithium.
      Having recently had an X-ray test that uses contrast material.
      Being pregnant.

  13. QUESTION:
    I am a 34 year old male and i have been told that i have a under active thyroid?
    My doctor started me 50 levothyroxine then two wks later he upped to 75. I have been taking my tablets four wks now. before i started to take my tablets i weighed 118k now four wks later i weigh 113 thats without any exercise. I keep getting a fast heart rate and which sounds like a thump in my heart plus i get what feels likw pins and needles in my left upper chest also chest pains come and go. Latlely i have throat problems where as i cant swallow food and it a bit sore. as any one experianced this and if so did it go away. I have just quit smoking today and before that i have been smoking 3 -5 a day for the last 6 months before that it was between 8 - 10 for 18 years

    • ANSWER:
      Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This tends to slow down the body's functions. Symptoms include tiredness, constipation and sensitivity to the cold.

      Approximately 1 in 50 women and 1 in 1000 men will develop symptoms of hypothyroidism at some stage in their lives. Once diagnosed, treatment is usually straightforward.

      The thyroid gland
      The thyroid gland is found in the neck. It lies in front of the wind-pipe (trachea), above the level of the collar-bones and measures approximately 2 by 4 cm. It secretes hormones, which are chemicals produced by the body to help regulate how cells, and the organs made up of groups of cells, work. Hormones are sometimes called chemical messengers.

      The thyroid hormones are thyroxine (also called T4 because it contains four iodine atoms) and triiodothyronine (also called T3 because it contains three iodine atoms). These are released into the blood stream.

      T3 speeds up the body's metabolism by encouraging the cells, in the muscles or the skin for instance, to work faster or to grow. Most of the T3 in the blood is converted from T4.

      Over- and underactive thyroid
      In hypothyroidism, the thyroid is under active, with too little of the thyroid hormones being released. In contrast, hyperthyroidism occurs when there is over-production of T3 and T4, causing the body's metabolism to "speed up". This results in symptoms such as anxiety and feeling hot, even in cool weather. For more information, please see the separate BUPA factsheet Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).

      Hormone production
      The production of T3 and T4 is regulated by another hormone called TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone or thyrotropin) which is made in the pituitary gland (found in the brain). A normal level of TSH is one of the indicators that the thyroid system is working properly.

      Causes of hypothyroidism
      Iodine insufficiency
      The chemical element iodine is a major component of thyroid hormones. Worldwide, a deficiency of iodine in the diet is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. This is much less common in the UK because iodine is contained in salt, which has iodine added to it during manufacture.

      Autoimmune hypothyroidism
      In the UK, and other countries where the amount of iodine in the diet is adequate, the main cause of hypothyroidism is "autoimmune hypothyroidism".

      Antibodies are proteins designed to defend the body from foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. In autoimmune diseases, antibodies attack the body itself. In autoimmune hypothyroidism, antibodies destroy thyroid gland cells preventing the gland from being able to release normal amounts of thyroid hormones.

      A condition known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with autoimmune hypothyroidism. It results in a goitre, a swelling of the thyroid gland, that is visible as a lump on the neck. With no goitre the condition may be called atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxoedema.

      Treatment for hyperthyroidism
      Hyperthyroidism is the result of an overactive thyroid gland (see separate BUPA factsheet). Treatments for hyperthyroidism, such as surgery or treatment with radioactive iodine or other antithyroid drugs can often result in hypothyroidism.

      Other causes:
      Congenital hypothyroidism (a condition babies are born with) happens when the thyroid gland fails to develop properly or does not produce adequate thyroid hormones. All babies in the UK are screened for this when the baby is 6-8 days old with a blood sample taken from a prick on the heel. With treatment, babies with congenital hypothyroidism develop normally.

      Inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis) due to infection can lead to hypothyroidism. Also, disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, both of which are involved in the overall regulation and production of thyroid hormones, can lead to hypothyroidism.

      Risk factors for hypothyroidism
      Hypothyroidism is more common in older people.
      Women are more likely to be affected than men.
      Autoimmune hypothyroidism is more likely in those who have other conditions resulting from an autoimmune disorder such as type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo and Addison's disease.
      Some medicines can affect the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. These include lithium carbonate (for bipolar disorder) and amiodarone (for heart rhythm abnormalities).
      Symptoms of hypothyroidism
      The symptoms of hypothyroidism can initially be very mild and develop slowly. It is possible to have some of these symptoms before the amount of thyroid hormone drops below normal.

      This type of mild hypothyroidism is called subclinical hypothyroidism. People affected need to be monitored by their doctor, who will watch out for further symptoms.

      The symptoms of hypothyroidism relate to a general "slowing down" of the body's functions. They include:

      feeling tired and sleeping excessively
      easily feeling the cold
      dry and thickened skin
      coarse, thinning hair and eyebrows and brittle nails
      sore muscles, slow movements and weakness
      depression and problems with memory and concentration
      weight gain
      constipation
      fertility problems and increased risk of miscarriage
      heavy, irregular or prolonged menstrual periods
      There may also be swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck - a goitre.

      Occasionally, a thyroid problem, such as thyroiditis, can resolve on its own without the need for treatment. However in general, if hypothyroidism is not treated, the symptoms slowly get worse and it becomes more and more difficult to function normally.

      Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
      Many of the above symptoms can be caused by conditions other than underactive thyroid. However, anyone who experiences these symptoms should consult their GP. A doctor will usually discuss symptoms, perform a physical examination and then request some blood tests if he or she suspects hypothyroidism.

      The first step in diagnosing hypothyroidism is to measure TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone).

      When the thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroid hormone, the TSH level is raised. When this abnormality is found, T4 (thyroxine) is also measured, and in autoimmune hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism due to treatment of hyperthyroidism, T4 is low.

      When levels of TSH and thyroid hormones are difficult to interpret, other causes of hypothyroidism may be suspected.

      The diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism is usually confirmed by the presence of particular antibodies in the blood.

      Other blood tests or further investigations may also be needed. These could include an ECG (heart tracing) or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to examine the nature and extent of a goitre.

      Treatment
      Thyroxine (T4) can be given in tablet form. The body is able to convert this to T3 just as it would if the thyroid gland were producing the thyroxine normally. It can take some time to get the dose right. It is usual to start with a low dose, building up gradually every six weeks and adjusting the dose according to TSH levels.

      People usually feel much better once they are taking thyroxine. Side-effects are unusual because a missing hormone is simply being replaced. However, if too much replacement thyroxine is given, symptoms of an overactive thyroid may be experienced.

      People with subclinical hypothyroidism may not have any treatment, though doctors vary in their approach. Some prefer to offer treatment. Others recommend frequent monitoring to see whether overt hypothyroidism (with symptoms) does develop.

      Once the correct dose of thyroxine replacement has been established, it is usual to have annual checks of TSH.

      Pregnancy and hypothyroidism
      The functioning of the thyroid gland can change during pregnancy. In the first half of pregnancy it is normal for the total amount of thyroid hormone to be slightly increased.

      Women with hypothyroidism need more frequent checks during pregnancy, as their thyroxine requirements tend to increase.

      Five percent of women have a mild problem with the thyroid three to six months after delivery. This has an autoimmune cause and can cause hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Although it rarely needs treatment it does mean that thyroid problems are more likely in later life.

      Further information
      British Thyroid Foundation
      0870 7707933
      http://www.btf-thyroid.org

  14. QUESTION:
    Thryoid Levels in 52 year old Female?
    OK, I am a 52 year old female, very active and consider myself in reasonably good health (touch wood!). In 2008 my thyroid level reading 4.36 and in 2009, it was 1.51. This would seem to suggest that my metabolism is speeding up? I thought that, as you get older, metabolism slows down? I am not too worried about it, but it does intrigue me. Can anyone shed light on the reason why this should happen?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      In one way, you need to address this question to your brain, by getting your TSH level measured.

      The normal thyroid gland does not decide how much thyroid hormone to produce; the brain tells it, by sending it a hormone called TSH, ("thyroid stimulating hormone").

      If you have a raised thyroid hormone level and a raised TSH level, this means that the thyroid gland is only doing what the brain told it to do. (The brain might be over-commanding, if there is something wrong with the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus on the underneath side of the brain.)

      If you have a raised thyroid hormone level and the TSH level is normal or low, this means the thyroid gland is abnormal and has broken free of brain control, - it is now producing thyroid hormone off its own bat. This happens in Graves' Disease.

      You metabolic rate depends directly on the stimulation (or not), of all the body's cells, by thyroid hormone, - you are correct about that, certainly.

      I have tried to explain about the thyroid hormone control mechanism, and how it works. If you want us to comment on your thyroid functions tests, we'd need all of them, and your own Laboratory's reference values. : )

      I hope this is of some help.

      Best wishes,

      Belliger
      retired uk gp

  15. QUESTION:
    if the parathyroid glands are removed along the thyroid during surgery, can death occur?

    • ANSWER:
      The parathyroid gland is responsible for regulating calcium in the blood. The risk of permanent damage to the parathyroid glands following complete removal of the thyroid is between five and 10 percent. If this occurs, you will need to take calcium supplements for life. This condition is known as hypoparathyroidism.

      Your body needs only ½ of 1 parathyroid gland to maintain a normal calcium blood level, so the loss of several parathyroids is usually well tolerated. The severity of symptoms related to hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) could vary from having muscle spasms to death...this depend on how low your calcium drops.

      Severe hypocalcemia immediately after parathyroid removal (all four glands) in individuals with low vitamin D levels..(low calcium causes low vitamin D) can cause death if this remains untreated.

      Hypoparathyroidism also causes high phosphorus levels. Without the parathyroid hormone, phosphorous is not excreted in the urine and tends to rise in the blood. It is best to avoid high phosphorous foods such as softdrinks, hot dogs and cut back on milk.

      The 1000 mg of dietary calcium should be divided throughout the day to maintain normal calcium levels. Vitamin D supplements are also recommended.

      Hypoparathyroidism:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoparathyroidism
      http://hpth.org.uk/resources.php?id=127

  16. QUESTION:
    when a change in warfrin can thin the blood?
    it can causeePivot'sa a thinning of the blood

    • ANSWER:
      Many commonly-used antibiotics, such as metronidazole or the macrolides, will greatly increase the effect of warfarin by reducing the metabolism of warfarin in the body. Other broad-spectrum antibiotics can reduce the amount of the normal bacterial flora in the bowel, which make significant quantities of vitamin K, thus potentiating the effect of warfarin.[41] In addition, food that contains large quantities of vitamin K will reduce the warfarin effect.[1] Thyroid activity also appears to influence warfarin dosing requirements;[42] hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid function) makes people less responsive to warfarin treatment,[43] while hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) boosts the anticoagulant effect.[44] Several mechanisms have been proposed for this effect, including changes in the rate of breakdown of clotting factors and changes in the metabolism of warfarin.[42][45]

      Excessive use of alcohol is also known to affect the metabolism of warfarin and can elevate the INR.[46] Patients are often cautioned against the excessive use of alcohol while taking warfarin.

      Warfarin also interacts with many herbs,[47] some are used in food such as Ginger taken for nausea and poor digestion and Garlic, used to help lower high cholesterol levels, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure, when used as a supplement, not in the diet,[citation needed] or for medicinal purposes such as Ginseng, taken to help with fatigue and weakness, and Ginkgo (a.k.a. Ginkgo Biloba), used to increase brain blood flow, prevent dementia, and improve memory, may all increase bleeding and brusing in people taking warfarin, similar effects have been reported with borage (starflower) oil or fish oils.[48] St. John's Wort, sometimes recommended to help with mild to moderate depression, interacts with warfarin causing a reduced anticoagulant effect, with potential for transplant rejection and arrhythmia or loss of asthma control and seizures.[49]

      Between 2003 and 2004, the UK Committee on Safety of Medicines received several reports of increased INR and risk of hemorrhage in people taking warfarin and cranberry juice.[50][51][52] Data establishing a causal relationship is still lacking, and a 2006 review found no cases of this interaction reported to the FDA;[52] nevertheless, several authors have recommended that both doctors and patients be made aware of its possibility.[53] The mechanism behind the interaction is still unclear.[52]>

  17. QUESTION:
    What is the normal testing range for TSH and T4 (ie thyroid levels) in the UK?
    In November 2008 my thyroid was found to be slightly under (but not enough to start treatment) but I was advised to have a blood test 3 months later just to keep an eye on it. Anyway it was found to have gone under more so in February 2009 i started taking Levothyroxine - 25 mcg. I had blood tests every three months and for almost a year my thyroid stayed within range (2.97 I'm told, it was 4.4 to begin with). Then this month I had my routine bloods and I got a phone call from the nurse saying I needed to double my dose. Apparently my thyroid levels had gone back up to 4.5 - 0.1 over what it was at the start of treatment). I was told the reason for me increasing my dose was to get my thyroid level back under 3. It all sounded a bit vague, there was no mention of testing ranges or what these figures corresponded to (TSH or T4). I didn't want to sound to sound anal by asking what this figure meant and I'm sure I'm in safe hands but what does that figure mean exactly? Is it TSH or T4.and if so what should my levels of both be? I am already thinking of going back to my doctors or mentioning it at my next blood test in 3 months time as they have never made this very clear and I feel I should know. Is there a set testing range for TSH and T4 in the UK or does it vary from lab from lab? What does the 4.5 correspond to exactly? I am confused, especially after looking on the internet where there is no clearly defined answer. Any ideas? Thanks : )

    • ANSWER:
      the normal range for TSH is 0.3-3.0. thats why they want to see the TSH of 4.5 go down below 3.0.

      it shounds like they didn't tell you what your T4 level is since you have only mentioned them telling you the TSH level. T4 should be between 4.6-12.

  18. QUESTION:
    I have just had a blood test which showed slightly low potassium and cholesterol at 5.2 should I be concerned?
    Tests on sugar and thyroid levels were fine

    • ANSWER:
      I wouldn't be concerned about the potassium if it's only slightly outside the range. But are you sure about the cholesterol of 5.2? Check it again. Although this sounds more like a potassium level, you stated that yours is slightly low and a normal range is 3.5-5.5. So this can't be your potassium, according to you. Yours would have to be something like 3.3 or 3.4.

      To the smartass from the U.K., do you even know where this person lives?

      And someone suggested trying for a cholesterol level of zero. Cholesterol is a substance that occurs naturally in the body and is produced by the liver. You cannot have no cholesterol in your body and 5.2 is not a cholesterol level.

      I have to side with Banzai on this one. Banzai & I use different reference ranges because there's variation from lab to lab, but we're on the money. The rest of you people have no idea what you're talking about and apparently don't even know what potassium and cholesterol are. And to the smartass from the UK, do you even know where this person lives? No, you don't.

  19. QUESTION:
    thyroid level?
    someone please tell me what is considered normal for thyroid function .. and what is the not normal range

    • ANSWER:
      Both laboratory norms and units differ from area to area even in UK.

      Normal level for total T4 is 4.5 to 13.7 ug/dl (mcg/dl)
      Normal TSH level 0.4-4.5 mIU/L (mU/L)
      Normal thyroid antibody level is 0. Though over 50 is given as abnormal, many doctors believe that any level of positivity is significant.

  20. QUESTION:
    T4 and TSH levels after overactive thyroid?
    9 months ago i was diagnosed with a overactive thyroid and have been taking carbimazole,i had a recent blood test and a appointment with my doctor who said i was responding well to treatment and lowered my carbimazole dosage but i can not remember what my levels were at the start of treatment but today my doctor sent me a copy of his findings that he has forwarded onto my GP and in this letter it states "her T4 is now in the normal range at 9 whilst her TSH is now detectable at 1.27" and i just wondered if people think these levels are normal and what they should be.
    i am a 32 year old female,mum of 4,do not drink,smoke or do any drugs and from the UK
    Many thanks

    • ANSWER:
      TSH ‘norm’ should be .3 – 3 (w/ most feeling best at < 2, like maybe ONE).

      So what about the meds that have gotten it to this level ... do they keep them up to maintain the level or do thay stop now? What did the doctor say that they will do now?

      I do not know much about HypER except that most people go w/ RAI as the one-of-three methods to 'kill off' the thyroid, rendering it HypO, then treat accordingly.

      Do they know for sure that you are HypER rather than just in a HypER swing of Hashimoto's?

      Here are some good sites to give you all answers:
      Ck these:
      http://thyroid.about.com/bio/Mary-Shomon-350.htm
      http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com/
      http://www.thyrophoenix.com/index.html
      http://thyroid.about.com/cs/newsinfo/l/blguidelines.htm

      God bless you

  21. QUESTION:
    plz help!!! what is thyroid normal levels?
    i recently had blood tests done because i jst feel like rubbish, so i had my thyroid levels checked but dont no weather there normal or not, the only ones ive gotten so far is the TSH and free T4, but now the doc has said i need to get a thyroid antibodies blood test, does this mean theres somthing wrong??
    well for a start i dont think a fella would have my name, im 28, i dont no if all 7 was tested, the TSH level was 21.0 and the free T4 was 8.6
    lol thanx lizzy for replying, i live in ireland, but i read that the levels here for the TSH is 0.3-3.0 and for the free T4 is 0.7-2.0, so mine is TSH is 8.6 and the free T4 is 21.0

    • ANSWER:
      Since you say you have received the results but you are not telling us what they are--we can not help you...did the doctor also do a T3 and/or a thyroglobulin or a complete 7 thyroid panel? You also so not mention your age, nor are you male/female.
      The thyroid anti-bodies test will determine whether or not there are other autoimmune issues going on besides the thyroid, such as RA, etc.
      Nothing to be concerned about, I'm sure your doctor is guiding you down the correct path and once all test have been conducted will discuss them with you along with a course for treatment plan.

      Edit: Pardon me..lol, you never know on this forum what type of names people use, I meant no disrespect..
      TSH levels are a bit high--normal would be some where between 0.300-5.600 depending on what the protocol is for the lab which tested it. I also imagine the T4 was a Free T4, Thyroxine, this is also a bit high for normal would be around 0.45-1.80, once again depending on the values of the lab which they were run.
      Also remember, if your question is from the UK--the range will be different from other countries.
      Sounds like you are having a thyroid problem and the doctor will probably put you on some medication for hypothyroidism.
      I take Synthroid for mine--my daughter also takes thyrox.
      It will take some time for adjustment--but you will begin to feel better... good luck to you!

  22. QUESTION:
    Proper Thyroid Numbers?
    I just got some blood work done and my paper came back with some numbers....for a 20 yr old female what are the normal levels for thyroid?

    • ANSWER:
      There are various tests showing differant numbers for a normal range.

      Do you know which test(s) were done.

      # f your doctor ran a test called Total T4 or Total Thyroxine, normal range is approximately 4.5 to 12.5. If you had a low reading, and a high TSH, your doctor might consider that indicative of hypothyroidism.

      # If your doctor ran a test called Total T4 or Total Thyroxine, normal range is approximately 4.5 to 12.5. If you had a low reading, and a low TSH, your doctor might look into a pituitary problem.

      # If your doctor ran a test called Free T4, or Free Thyroxine, normal range is approximately 0.7 to 2.0. If your result was less than 0.7, your doctor might consider that indicative of hypothyroidism.

      # If your doctor ran a test called Total T3, normal range is approximately 80 to 220. If your result was less than 80, your doctor might consider that indicative of hypothyroidism.

      # If your doctor ran a test called Free T3, normal range is approximately 2.3 to 4.2. If your result was less than 2.3, your doctor might consider that indicative of hypothyroidism.

      see also

      http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/surgerynotes/geaston/thyroid.shtml

  23. QUESTION:
    What's the problem with my Thyroid?
    About 5 years ago, when I lived in Germany, I went to see my
    gynaecologist because my period was all over the place. I bled all the time and every now and them I had a proper period. I was very stressed at the time, too. She tested my blood while I was on my period and came back to me saying that my blood contains a lot of antbodies and a slightly underactive thyroid and she referred me to a thyroid specialist (can't remember the exact numbers). She also put me on the pill to regulate my period. Then I had a thyroid scan and it showed lots of nodules. I was just about to move to the UK so I just received a letter from a doctor at that surgery who has never seen me and he diagnosed me with Hashimoto and suggested to have my thyroid removed (they didn't even do a biopsy of the nodules). So I went to my GP in Britain and they said they will have to test me again. Suddenly the test was normal and they also did another scan and a biopsy. They told me that nodules are fairly normal, the biopsy didn't show anything unusual either. They just asked me to stay on the pill. Since then I had a few thyroid tests which all came back normal. So I was wondering if the pill "cured" my hashimoto? (I google about thyroid antibodies and it all suggests that it could be hashimoto syndrome) Or could it be that the tests are done differently in the UK? I came off the pill about 15 month ago and only recently my period started playing up again - I didn't have one for 2 month. By the way, I never had a regular period in my life, I was only put on the pill when I was bleeding all the time. So I started taking the pill again. Just before that I had another thyroid test and it came back fine. My stress levels have been high most of the time. I am a bit puzzled why I was ever diagnosed with that and now all blood tests come back fine? I asked several GP's and they only shrug with their shoulders...Any idea? Should I keep checking my thyroid levels or not bother and just stay on the pill?

    • ANSWER:
      I thank God that they did not REMOVE your thyroid! You just need a thyroid-knowledged doctor ... good luck! They are HARD to find! Thyroid disorder is missed more than found. BC pills DO NOT cure this! If you had it, you have it now! It is lifelong ... even w/ proper treatment. The meds are for the rest of your life & they are VITAL to quality of life (even life).

      You need testing for thyroid ANTIBODIES as well as TSH. TSH ‘norm’ should be .3 – 3 (w/ most feeling best at < 2) but, for diagnosis, may not mean much if ANTIBODIES are present which is indicative of Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis (cycles between HYPER & HYPO at start)…it is the main cause of eventual HypOthyroidism but worse (...OR Graves Disease – HypERthyroid from beginning).

      You will have to INSIST they test for the antibodies. They can code so that ins will pay.

      There is also a TRH test that can be done ... be persistent! Make them look HARD for this.

      WARNING: Doctors seem not to want to find/treat thyroid disease. You may have to go to more than one doctor before you get the right tests, interpretation, and treatment. Best wishes.

      Ck these:
      http://thyroid.about.com/bio/Mary-Shomon-350.htm
      http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com/
      http://www.thyrophoenix.com/index.html
      http://thyroid.about.com/cs/newsinfo/l/blguidelines.htm

      ALWAYS GET COPIES OF YOUR LABS.

      God bless you

  24. QUESTION:
    What's the problem with my Thyroid?
    About 5 years ago, when I lived in Germany, I went to see my
    gynaecologist because my period was all over the place. I bled all the time and every now and them I had a proper period. I was very stressed at the time, too. She tested my blood while I was on my period and came back to me saying that my blood contains a lot of antbodies and a slightly underactive thyroid and she referred me to a thyroid specialist (can't remember the exact numbers). She also put me on the pill to regulate my period. Then I had a thyroid scan and it showed lots of nodules. I was just about to move to the UK so I just received a letter from a doctor at that surgery who has never seen me and he diagnosed me with Hashimoto and suggested to have my thyroid removed (they didn't even do a biopsy of the nodules). So I went to my GP in Britain and they said they will have to test me again. Suddenly the test was normal and they also did another scan and a biopsy. They told me that nodules are fairly normal, the biopsy didn't show anything unusual either. They just asked me to stay on the pill. Since then I had a few thyroid tests which all came back normal. So I was wondering if the pill "cured" my hashimoto? (I google about thyroid antibodies and it all suggests that it could be hashimoto syndrome) Or could it be that the tests are done differently in the UK? I came off the pill about 15 month ago and only recently my period started playing up again - I didn't have one for 2 month. By the way, I never had a regular period in my life, I was only put on the pill when I was bleeding all the time. So I started taking the pill again. Just before that I had another thyroid test and it came back fine. My stress levels have been high most of the time. I am a bit puzzled why I was ever diagnosed with that and now all blood tests come back fine? I asked several GP's and they only shrug with their shoulders...Any idea? Should I keep checking my thyroid levels or not bother and just stay on the pill?

    • ANSWER:
      AGAIN
      I thank God that they did not REMOVE your thyroid! You just need a thyroid-knowledged doctor ... good luck! They are HARD to find! Thyroid disorder is missed more than found. BC pills DO NOT cure this! If you had it, you have it now! It is lifelong ... even w/ proper treatment. The meds are for the rest of your life & they are VITAL to quality of life (even life).

      You need testing for thyroid ANTIBODIES as well as TSH. TSH ‘norm’ should be .3 – 3 (w/ most feeling best at < 2) but, for diagnosis, may not mean much if ANTIBODIES are present which is indicative of Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis (cycles between HYPER & HYPO at start)…it is the main cause of eventual HypOthyroidism but worse (...OR Graves Disease – HypERthyroid from beginning).

      You will have to INSIST they test for the antibodies. They can code so that ins will pay.

      There is also a TRH test that can be done ... be persistent! Make them look HARD for this.

      WARNING: Doctors seem not to want to find/treat thyroid disease. You may have to go to more than one doctor before you get the right tests, interpretation, and treatment. Best wishes.

      Ck these:
      http://thyroid.about.com/bio/Mary-Shomon…
      http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com/
      http://www.thyrophoenix.com/index.html
      http://thyroid.about.com/cs/newsinfo/l/b…

      ALWAYS GET COPIES OF YOUR LABS.

      God bless you

  25. QUESTION:
    biology homework help!! about blood sugar and calcium in blood?
    it says... "Explain how glucose and calcium levels are maintained in the blood. Clearly identify the feedback mechanisms involved."
    can anyone help me? any specific web that i can go to? thanks

    • ANSWER:
      [1] Glucose is regulated by insulin and glucagon http://www.elp.manchester.ac.uk/pub_projects/2000/mnby7lc2/factors_affecting_secretion.htm

      [2] Calcium is regulated by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, the kidneys and Vitamin D's effect
      ----------
      BRIEF SUMMARY:

      [1] GLUCOSE - Insulin is produced when glucose levels become elevated, and it mediates the uptake of glucose by the liver cells, stimulating formation of glycogen in the liver. Glucagon is produced when glucose levels drop, and acts within the liver to increase the conversion of glycogen to glucose.

      [2] CALCIUM -
      * Calcitonin causes calcium levels to fall by stimulating osteoblasts to remove calcium from the blood and deposit it in bone:
      * Parathyroid hormone does the opposite. It causes an increase in osteoCLAST activity by converting osteoblasts into osteoclasts. Osteoclasts dissolve bone and increase serum calcium levels in so doing.
      * Parathyroid hormone is secreted by the parathyroid glands and serves as an antagonist to calcitonin. It elevates blood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone for release of calcium into the blood, stimulates the kidneys to resorb calcium ions from the urine to increase the calcium concentration in the blood, and activates vitamin D, which facilitates the absorption of calcium by the intestine.
      -----------------------
      DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS:

      [1] GLUCOSE - The concentration of glucose in the blood rises rapidly after the ingestion of glucose (or a high carbohydrate meal). This shows that glucose is rapidly absorbed from the gut into the blood. The increase in blood glucose concentration is closely followed in time by an increase in plasma insulin concentration. This shows that the beta cells are very sensitive to slight changes in blood glucose and are capable of responding rapidly. Peak glucose concentration occurs within the first hour and a return to basal levels within two hours.

      The initial increase in glucagon concentration parallels the increase in glucose. This is due to stimulation of the alpha cells by nerve impulses triggered by the presence of "food" in the gut. The glucagon concentration begins to fall shortly after glucose concentration begins to rise. The alpha cells detect that glucose concentrations are rising above normal levels. This change starts processes within the cells that inhibit the secretion of glucagon. After blood glucose and insulin levels return to normal, the concentration of glucagon begins to increase again back towards basal levels.
      -----------------------
      [2] CALCIUM - PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH), or parathormone, is an 84 amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that increases the serum calcium (Ca2+) concentration of the blood by stimulating parathyroid hormone receptors in three parts of the body:

      (1) Bones - PTH enhances calcium release from the large skeletal reservoir by binding to osteoblasts and forming new osteoclasts ultimately enhancing bone resorption.

      (2) Kidney - PTH enhances active renal distal tubule and thick ascending limb reabsorption of calcium.

      (3) Intestine - PTH enhances absorption of calcium in the gut.

      CALCITONIN is a 32-amino acid polypeptide hormone produced by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, which acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+) by antagonizing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in three ways:

      (1) Bones – Calcitonin decreases osteoclast activity in bones.

      (2) Kidney – Calcitonin decreases Ca2+ and phosphate reabsorption by the kidney tubules.

      (3) Intestine - Calcitonin decreases Ca2+ absorption by the intestines.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parathyroid_hormone
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcitonin
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_D
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_metabolism

      VITAMIN D

      Calcitriol, or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2 D3) is the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3). It increases the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys and inhibits release of parathyroid hormone (PTH.

  26. QUESTION:
    I Have A TSH Of 5.5 When Tested For Hypothryoidism - what does this mean?
    It may help to say I'm in the UK and 5.0 is seen as the highest 'normal' at the docs. I'm at. It is to see if I will be prescribed prednisolone (sp?). I am awaiting the results for my cortisol levels - what would you predict they will be? What I really want to know is how would someone be feeling with a TSH of 5.5? Thank yuo very much for your time, much appreciated.

    Regards,

    Me.

    • ANSWER:
      I think, dr frank is right, he also did not advise on tretament, but initial interpretation of basic values,- there is further diagnostics on the pitiuary-thyroid axis necessary of course, in order to establish the exact cause of the inbalance. there is quite a few diff-diagnosis.
      if an auto-immun d/o is present, prednisolone is the first line treatment, but thereafter other options will be considered by an endocrinologist! malignant processes must naturally be outruled by
      scanning, ultrasound and - if indicated and safe, scintigram (isotope application and gamma.camera)

  27. QUESTION:
    Mild (untreated) hypothyroid but difficulty conceiving?
    Gps here in the UK refuse to treat hypothyroid with TSH levels lower than 10. When tested, my TSH levels were 5.05 (mid January) and 4.95 (mid February). They would have considered treating had my second tested TSH stayed above 5.

    I've had every symptom going for hypothyroid for the last 3 years: cold all the time, inactive, low bbt (generally below 36C for around 18 months, with post-ovulatory "highs" of up 36.3C, when I'd feel almost normal again).

    Since learning that my thyroid was a little underactive a few months ago, I've been taking vitamins and supplements (multi Bs, fish oils, cranberry extract, and Siberian Ginseng), and feel A LOT better- pre ovulation temperature has risen to 36.3-36.5.

    But. Still no baby, despite trying for 4 years.

    Has anybody else been in this situation, and how did you resolve it? Also, what is your experience treatment?
    Thanks all for all your pointers. It is very frustrating to feel unwell yet not to be taken seriously by the GP.

    And in answer to my third answerer, yes, going abroad is a distinct possibility as my mother lives in France where they treat EVERY tiny thing quickly and well. I would want to have the tests redone though, as I believe that thyroxine and TSH levels vary continually.

    • ANSWER:
      get another doc,i am on thyroxine and i feel 100% better

  28. QUESTION:
    Under active thyroid?
    I have been diagnosed with a slightly under active thyroid caused by meds I am on. The thing is my sex drive has increased and not decreased as stated on health websites. Is there a chance that it can cause a high sex drive? I've looked everywhere on the net but keep coming up with the same answer.
    Thanks for the help.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      Thanks for asking, but in my opinion we don't have enough information to advise you.

      We don't know if your doctor just took thyroid tests as routine, or if you have low-thyroid symptoms.

      We don't know what your other meds are, or why you are taking them.

      We don't know whether you have a high brain over-drive on your thyroid gland, - a high TSH level in your blood, ("thyroid stimulating hormone").

      We don't know if there's enough trace-iodine in your diet.

      We don't know if your brain could also be over-driving your sex hormones.

      We don't know how old you are, and if you have only just passed into normal sexual activity, - in which case a slight goitre, (a slight swelling-up of the thyroid gland in the front of the neck), could be normal.

      I hope this is of some help.

      Best wishes,

      Belliger
      retired uk gp

  29. QUESTION:
    Thyroid Level 6.1 Is this Boderline?
    Hi,
    My wife has had a thyroid test, and came back at 6.1 which she was told it was boderline and she would need another test in 3 months time to see is this right or does she need treatment. She is loosing alot of hair and has lost about a stone. She also suffers from Pernicious Anaemia,are these conected? Also Please could you let me know the ranges for the uk???
    Thanks for your help.

    • ANSWER:
      Though there are lab variations the normal TSH ( thyroid stimulating hormone) levels are usually maximum between 4.5 and 5. A raised level means tha pituitary gland in the brain is having to release more TSH than it should need to, to get the thyroid gland to release sufficient T4 ( the main thyroid hormone). This may indicate under-active thyroid.

      To confirm this diagnosis the blood test needs to be repeated, at the same time T4 levels and thyroid antibody levels need to be checked. To justify treatment, TSH should be high, T4 should be low and thyroid antibody should be positive.

      There is a link with PA in that both conditions are auto-immune diseases, so of you have one you are more likely to have other diseases in the group.

  30. QUESTION:
    Can I just turn up and donate blood?
    I just turned 17 on Monday, and I really want to go and give blood.

    I'm not registered on the Blood Donor Register yet, but I've heard that there is a blood donation tomorrow at a venue near me. It's in even evening, so after sixth form.

    Can I just turn up and ask to give blood? I understand they will want to take my health details etc...

    Also, if anyone knows about giving blood... I had 2 operations (the latest one 11 months ago)
    It was for removal of half in large intestine (complication after an appendix operation) and also the other for half my thyroid to be removed, as i had a cyst in it.
    I'm not on any medication though, and all my full blood count and thyroid levels are compeltely normal!

    I really want to just turn up tomorrow and give blood... is this allowed or do I have to register and make appoiintments etc.?

    Thanks! xxxxxxx

    • ANSWER:
      No appointments or anything are required, you just need to turn up. For a first timer they will ask you all sorts of questions about your medical and sexual history.

      However because you've had surgery you may get turned down, but it's not certain.

      All the info you need is available here:
      https://secure.blood.co.uk/c11_cant.asp

  31. QUESTION:
    Dr Frank - thyroid test 6 months ago reading was T4 normal T3 5.2, 3 months later T4 normal T3 5.6, ?
    Should thyroixine not be given at this level for underactive thyroid?

    • ANSWER:
      First off all if you are in the UK, 99% of doctors do not know how to treat thyroid disease. They only know about Thyroxine which is a synthetic CHEMICAL and should not be in your body. It has many side affects, some (few) dont feel unwell on thyroxine as you may well find in a couple of months...weight gain, extreme fatigue, frequent bowel movements, puffy eyes and dry skin, and many others.

      In the long term it leads to osteoporosis. In time you will experience these side affects, so please keep the information that I am about to tell you as you WILL need it. You can treat your thyroid by natural medication with NO side affects. The medication is called Armour Thyroid and is derived from pig’s glands that have a great success rate. They actually used to prescribe it in this country for people with thyroid disease. Yet most doctors don’t even know that, in fact most doctors will not have heard of it and advice you against it while not being able to give you scientific evidence why you shouldn’t! That’s because it’s all about money not health. Their problem with natural products is that nobody can patent them, so the government cannot have exclusive ownership. But they can by making up synthetic chemicals.

      What you need to know is that about 85% of people are unable to transfer T4 into T3 when they use Thyroxine. T3 is essential to the function of the main organs of your body. Armour thyroid naturally has T4, T3 and T2 and T1 and it make you feel well with no side affects. Tyroxine does not have T2 & T1. Once you research it at the site below you can order it from the recommended site www.internationalpharmacy.com
      I was on Thyroxine for two years and did not feel well on it I had absolutely no energy and my weight ballooned up to 19 and a half stone. I started my Armour in April this year and I am now 15 and a half stone with loads of energy. Armour Thyroid helps increase your metabolism where thyroxine slows it down. As you don’t know me, don’t take my word for your health go to www.tpa-uk.org.uk Sheila Turner (expert on thyroid disease) runs this thyroid patient advocacy site which will inform and educate you on your disease. There are over six hundred other people on that forum who are taking Armour Thyroid and can give you advice. Pretty soon you will see that doctors know absolutely nothing about treating the thyroid. The are ignorant about it.

      Beware of people on this site who are not what they seem, and will try and discreadit amour thyroid at every oppertuinity.

  32. QUESTION:
    PKU Home Testing........?
    Hi

    I know all babies are supposed to be tested for PKU since 1969 in the UK.
    However, I WASN'T. Not sure why but I wasn't. Anyway, I was allergic to my Mum's breast milk so couldn't drink it and have read online that babies are tested as soon as they are digesting breast milk, so maybe that's why I wasn't tested.
    I had delayed development growing up and still take longer than average to learn new things.
    I also get what some doctors think could be partial seizures. I get more of these if I have anything with aspartame in it.
    I also have excessive sweating and excessive thirst despite normal thyroid and diabetes tests and sleeping problems.
    A Neurologist did mention PKU but said it was very rare and unlikely.

    Just wondering if there is a home test I can buy for it in the UK and where from?

    • ANSWER:
      how old are you? if you are not very old get tested now my daughter has pku you cant get a home test but you could ask your doctor for a blood test but i don't thin you have because its not just aspartame that effects you its the level of protine in mostly alot of food we eat my daughter can only have 3 exchanges worth of protine aday thats 60 grams of potatoes 35g of sweetcorn and say a packet crisps 25g then the rest is made up of fake food she gets from the chemist you could ask for a test but if you have had untreated ends up in development problems brain damage and you would of had a very Strong urine smell as well thats a very common symptom no harm in having a test but i think it would of done alot of damage by now if you have had it untreated hope that help can vist www.nspku.org

  33. QUESTION:
    it's not diabetes but everything is the same?
    i am a 12 yr old girl from the uk. I have seen multiple doctors due to problems (listed below(tiredness is not much of a problem)) but i haven't been getting anywhere.
    I have been experiencing many of the type 1 diabetes symptoms. The ones i experienced are:
    1. Frequent urination
    2. Thirst
    3. i am quite tired
    today i had the test where they prick your finger, my level was 5.6 which is normal but i have all the symptoms, is it possible its diabetes or is there something with the same symptoms?
    thank you so much :)

    • ANSWER:
      It may be some other condition other than diabetes. It might be a thyroid problem so you may need a blood test to check your hormone levels. Ask your doctor to do a blood test. Do you have any other medical conditions and are you on any medication?

  34. QUESTION:
    thyroid blood test result?
    hi there can anyone explain to me what does mean if my t3 is 0.9 it was 0.23 2 weeks ago doc says its overactive but didnt really expalin waht the range i live in uk,
    many thanks no rude comments.

    • ANSWER:
      The range for normal values of Triiodothyronine (T3) is 100 - 200 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter) or 1.5 to 2.9 nmol/L (SI units). You have got 60 ng/dL. (conversion factor: 0.015). Less than 70 ng/dL indicates hypothyroidism.
      Lower than normal levels may be due to:--
      * Long-term illness
      * Hypothyroidism (for example, Hashimoto's disease)
      * Starvation
      Please note that I am not a medical professional.

  35. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to still have an underactive thyroid even if the TSH level is normal?
    I was dignosed in 2008 with hypothyroidism for which I was successfully treated, my thyroid gradualy got better with time and I was taken off Levothyroxine. Medical proffesionals put it down to pregnancy. I had another child in 2009 and started to feel terrible again, I also moved to a new area with different doctors, I requested a new blood test and it came back with a TSH level of 2.11 (this is considered normal) though at the high end of the scale. She did not test my free T3's and T4's. Can someone please tell me why this is? and also does anyone know if it is still possible to have an underactive thyroid with a normal level of TSH?

    I am from the UK... I know different areas have different result meanings. ( this is STUPID) why cant every lab have the same result meanings?

    • ANSWER:
      The problem is that your testing has been inadequate. TSH alone is no more than a screen test. If disease is suspected or has been previously identified, T3, T4 and thyroid antibody also need to be checked. Most thyroid disease is due to an auto immune condition, previously known as Hashimoto's auto immune thyroiditis. It can produce both over and under activity and requires constant monitoring.

  36. QUESTION:
    Thyroid problems?
    A brief summary. I was always a size 8 (even after having my kids) then suddenly one day i began piling on weight...after months of trying to convince my GP that i wasnt just over-eating he eventually granted my request of a thyroid function test. Needless to say I was under-active. I was diagnosed three years ago and my current weight is 11 (used to be 8 and a half)I take thyroxine daily but have just found out im pregnant. What i want to know is once the baby is born i am SO DESPERATE to get back to a healthy weight for my height etc..has anyone else had similiar experiences or any advice to offer. i dont believe that ordinary diets work for Hypo-thyroid people.Naturally i intend to go to the gym but want a good diet to go alongside it. Thanks guys

    • ANSWER:
      I also have an under active thyroid. I had two pregnancies before I got it and one since. I struggled with my post-baby weight much more after the third one even though I had been on regular thyroid medication for four years.

      Normal healthy living and eating didn't really work well enough for me, but a year ago I tried Slimming World and lost over three stone in just less than a year! I know it sounds corny, and I was a true skeptic before then, but what can I say? It works! I don't quite know how or why, but I feel better now than I have done in years. I went from size 18/ 20 to 12/ 14 and have kept it off. I am now the weight I was when I first got married ten years ago and had not seen on the scales since then!!

      It's definately acheivable. And because it's normal food, just different combinations, the whole family can do it and it's completely safe - even with a thyroid condition. I am sticking with this as a lifestyle change rather than a diet because I struggled for so long, like you, and now I've found something that works, I don't want to lose it!

      You must be taking your medication too, although you may find that as you lose weight, the levels of medication need adjusting. Work with your doctor on this one and get regular blood tests.

      Why don't you go to www.slimming-world.co.uk to find out where your nearest group is.

      I don't actually go to the sessions anymore, but still stick closely to the plan. It's been 6 months and I have maintained, no problem. I stay motivated because I know where I was and I'm not going back there! I never thought anything could win against the under-active thyroid, but there is hope! All the best to you!

  37. QUESTION:
    TSH Thyroid level of 0.246 ul/ml ?
    I asked my doctor to check my thyroid because of my unresolved symptoms that go across the board. I just received my records to check levels myself, and the only test run was the TSH. Which I understand is a good indicator.

    However it is well below the reference range, and even says abnormal beside it.

    The level was 0.246

    Does this warrant further lab testing?

    From what I have read it could indicate hyperthyroidism, and in some cases oddly enough hypo. But I don't understand why the doctor wouldn't mention this and say everything came back normal.

    Is this normal even though it is well below the normal range?

    I would prefer other thyroid patients and medical persons, and anyone who has a good knowledge of endocrinology to reply to help me get a direction of what to do.

    Thank you,

    • ANSWER:
      It means your thyroid is currently overactive. Your doctor should have asked you to make an appointment to have another blood test to see if it is temporary.

      This happened to me about 10 months ago. My thyroid was 'slightly overactive' according to a blood test and I had to have another one a week later and it was then within the normal range. I am from the UK and the normal range used by the lab is 0.5 - 5.0.

      I had another test in December last year and I am now diagnosed as hypothyroid and taking levothyroxine tablets so it was probably the last gasp of my body trying to normalise itself :/

      Seriously, you should go back and ask for another blood test I would. Just tell the doctor you believe your TSH indicates a degree of hyperthyroidism.

  38. QUESTION:
    thyroid blood result?
    can anyone help me read my thyroid result
    fbc and u&e nad
    tfts:TSH less then 0.03
    free T4 20.9
    freeT3 6.3

    can anyone tell me more about it how to read it whats the range in uk many thanks
    no rude comments

    • ANSWER:
      You have hyperthyroidism.

      I thought thyroid tests were the same in the US and UK, but I found a UK reference range that was slightly broader (accepts a larger range as normal) than what I've seen here in the US. By this site, your TSH is low, fT4 is normal, and it doesn't give fT3.
      http://www.pathology.leedsth.nhs.uk/pathology/ClinicalInfo/Biochemistry/EndocrinologyampDiabetes/ThyroidFunctionTests.aspx

      This UK website gives exactly the same ranges I've seen here in the US. According to these standards, your free T3 and free T4 are both normal with the TSH being low.
      http://www.thyroiduk.org.uk/tuk/testing/thyroid_blood_tests.html

      That suggests that you have mild (subacute) hyperthyroidism, which means that the cause is less likely to be Grave's and more likely to be subacute thyroiditis; further testing should reveal the cause.

      TSH is a hormone made by the pituitary (in the brain) in response to the thyroid hormone levels in your body. TSH stimulates the thyroid to make more hormone; when TSH is low, your brain is trying to tell your thyroid to make less hormone, which indicates that your body has too much thyroid hormone for you.

  39. QUESTION:
    is a 3.92 thyroid test high?
    The doc said i was in the normal range with a 3.92 (TSH i think) but I read stuff about that being really high...since im only 20...is this true because I've always felt like I had a thyroid problem since I'm tired all the time and have depression, along with hair loss.

    • ANSWER:
      Here in the Uk that is considered to be too high still. I was recently diagnosed with an under active thyroid and after my first 8 weeks of treatment my test came back with my T4 being in the normal range 19 point something and my TSH 4.26. My doctor said that is still too high, and that my thyroid is still under active as a result and as such has increased my dosage my 25% for the next 8 weeks. Apparently it should be 2.0 or less.

      I think the TSH is related to the thyroid and the pituitary gland, apparently if the TSH is still too high its the pit gland sending signals to the thyroid to produce more hormones.

      Go back to your doctor and tell them to do more research on the subject, you need more Thyroxine as your levels aren't right yet, and only you will know once you begin to start to feel more like your old self again. Good luck

  40. QUESTION:
    Underactive Thyroid?
    I have recently been diagnoised with an underactive Thyroid (8 weeks ago) i am taking medication for this but i'm only on 75mg a day. My Doctor seems to want to higher the dose at a slow pace is this normal?
    I live in the UK so get free health care also now get free prescriptions because of underactive Thyroid

    • ANSWER:
      Yes that is normal. I was diagnosed with it 9 years ago after the birth of my 3rd baby. I started on 50 mcgs daily. I used to get a blood test done once every year but because of complications I've had lately I now get one every four to six months. I am now on 175mcgs. Your doc will monitor your blood and change your Thyroxine amount until the blood levels are correct and your thyroid is clinically stabalised. There may be times that you will need less and there may be times you will need more, that's why they do regular blood tests. You will be put on the Thyroid register, they send you a letter telling you when to go get your bloods done.

      Ask your doc to explain things in a bit more detail to you. I did and my doc was great she helped me understand alot more. I too am in the UK.

      Good Luck :)

  41. QUESTION:
    question about hypothroid?
    I am 43 years old and resently i started feeling a bit sluggish
    Iwent to my reguler doc who gave me a blood test and she told me that every thing was ok.
    After a reccomedation of a close friend I decided to go see a thyroid specialist that was in febuary . he gave me a blood test and the result came in that i have hasi-moto but that for now my thyroid hormone level is fine. about a monht ago i stated feeling even worse very tired all the time pain in my armes and legs when i walk, swelling under my eyes so i went back to see the thrroid doc he gave me a blood test again and was shocked at how low my hormone level fell so he immedietly put me on levothyroxin 0.1mg . i have been taking this medicaition for about a week now still dont see any chainges.
    My questionis how long deos it take for me to start feeling better and also i noticed that this morning i woke up to swelling over my eye lids . could hypothyroid be the cause of that i still have sweeling under my eyes too.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      I think you mean Hashimoto's thyroiditis, that's how it's spelled in the uk anyway. There's a reference below. It's a disease in which your body's immune system starts attacking your own thyroid gland.

      Clearly the damage to your thyroid got worse quite quickly.

      Yes, the eye swelling could be due to low thyroid hormone.

      It's not safe to start replacement thyroid tablets too quickly. The body and heart can easily be over-stimulated. The normal way to do it, is to start with a really low dose of thyroid replacement hormone, and as the body gets used to that, increase the dosage every 3 or 4 weeks.

      A week isn't long enough for a cure of your symptoms in these circumstances, please persevere. You can look forward to being cured, (at the price of taking a tablet every day for life).

      Hope this is of some help.

  42. QUESTION:
    does any on have information about underactive thyroid?
    Hello, Ive been pretty poorly for quite a while and all the symptom'ss point to anunder activeethyroidd.Ive had blood tests donewhichh suggested that this was the case, 2 weeks later more blood tests suggest im in normal range. Ive looked for info on line and have noticed that many people have been in the same situation and it has took a long time for the doctor to diagnose and treat them.It seems that the blood results warrant treatment and not the symptoms. Im feeling pretty low and seeing the doctor on wednesday any suggestions or information.Thank you Angie

    • ANSWER:
      Here is the answer to your problem. Doctors no little about thyroid detection and treatment. Many people are unwell and are not diagnosed for an under active thyroid because you cannot accurately tell by a blood test.

      If you do have an under active thyroid do not take the doctors synthetic chemical treatment of thyroxine as most people feel unwell on it and it does not have enough of essential hormones to properly control the thyroid levels.
      Don’t worry you can feel better without that synethic chemicals.

      First off all if you are in the UK, 99% of doctors do not know how to treat thyroid disease. They only know about Thyroxine which is a synthetic CHEMICAL and should not be in your body. It has many side affects, many dont feel well on thyroxine as you may well find in a couple of months...weight gain, extreme fatigue, frequent bowel movements, puffy eyes and dry skin, and many others.

      In the long term it leads to osteoporosis. In time you will experience these side affects, so please keep the information that I am about to tell you as you WILL need it. You can treat your thyroid by natural medication with NO side affects. The medication is called Armour Thyroid and is derived from pig’s glands that have a great success rate. They actually used to prescribe it in this country for people with thyroid disease. Yet most doctors don’t even know that, in fact most doctors will not have heard of it and advice you against it while not being able to give you scientific evidence why you shouldn’t! That’s because it’s all about money not health. Their problem with natural products is that nobody can patent them, so the government cannot have exclusive ownership. But they can by making up synthetic chemicals.

      What you need to know is that about 85% of people are unable to transfer T4 into T3 when they use Thyroxine. T3 is essential to the function of the main organs of your body. Armour thyroid naturally has T4, T3 and T2 and T1 and it make you feel well with no side affects. Tyroxine does not have T2 & T1. Once you research it at the site below you can order it from the recommended site:

      http://www.internationalpharmacy.com/en/...

      I was on Thyroxine for two years and did not feel well on it I had absolutely no energy and my weight ballooned up to 19 and a half stone. I started my Armour in April this year and I am now 15 and a half stone with loads of energy. Armour Thyroid helps increase your metabolism where thyroxine slows it down. As you don’t know me, don’t take my word for your health go to http://www.tpa-uk.org.uk/ Sheila Turner (expert on thyroid disease) runs this thyroid patient advocacy site which will inform and educate you on your disease. There are over six hundred other people on that forum who are taking Armour Thyroid and can give you advice. Pretty soon you will see that doctors know absolutely nothing about treating the thyroid. The are ignorant about it.

      Beware of people on this site who are not what they seem, and will try and discredit amour thyroid at every opportunity.
      In the early 1960s, desiccated thyroid hormones (thyroid extract) began to be replaced by synthetic levothyroxine (T4), or by combinations of synthetic T4 and T3. Replacement occurred faster in the United Kingdom than in North America, but by the 1980s more patients were being prescribed synthetic levothyroxine or T4/T3 combinations than desiccated thyroid extract.

  43. QUESTION:
    Hypothyroidism UK T3 and T4?
    My TSH level is 1.62

    A few months after my first child was born in 2007 I was diagnosed with an under-active thyroid and was told I would need to be on medication for life, this was distressing for me but I felt much better after taking a small daily dose of levothyroxine and regular check up's with my endocrinologist.

    I became pregnant with my second child, the symptoms vanished and the bloods went back to normal so I was unusually taken off my medication and postpartum hypothyroidism was blamed. Shortly after my daughter was born in january 2009 I started to feel ILL again really really ILL like DYING ILL. I knew it was my thyroid as I had suffered with the same symptom's in 2007-2008 for which I was successfully treated with levothyroxine.

    I also moved to a different area and only recently discovered that there are different lab results meanings for different area's, this has been distressing for me as I know if I still lived in my previous area I would most likely be treated, however because I live here I will not get treated. I tick almost every symptom of hypothyroidism yet my blood work for THIS AREA is within the normal range.

    The doctor only tested my TSH levels??? Why wouldn't he check my T3 and T4??? Yes my TSH levels are within the normal range, I understand this, but there is a lot of controversy surrounding the illness and many people are going undiagnosed for 20 or 30 years, suffering for years whilst waiting for there TSH levels to rise enough to be treated..

    My TSH level is 1.62 very normal in most people's eyes but I feel terribly ill and they wont do anything for me. I would rather DIE than suffer like this for the next 20 years, it could take years for my TSH levels to rise, yet I have RAGINGsymptom'ss.

    My doctor has said if the results come back as normal then there is nothing they can do other than rule an illness out and try to find out what the real problem is.

    There is NO other problem, I know what is wrong with me and I know what I need to feel better.. I need levothyroxine. But you know DOCTORS KNOW BEST... What am I supposed to do? I am at a loss with myself, I want to live a normal happy productive life and have been held back for 3 years, I have missed 3 years of my life. we only live once and I cant suffer like this any longer.. Can anyone help me please?? What should I do?? Who should I see?? Should I self medicate. I was considering buying levothyroxin from the internet and taking them to prove to my doctor that taking them WILL make me better.

    I am thankful for any responses which I get.

    Sorry this has taken so long to read and thank you for your time. :- (

    • ANSWER:
      Number one. Doctors do not always know best.
      Two. Do not self medicate.
      You need to go back to the doctor and say what you have said on here, that you need T3 and T4 checked.
      They will do it if you ask for it.
      ]For any one, Doctors see so many patients in a day, that your case is not unique. Make sure you say something to him/her while still in the surgery if you think something is not right. There is no use stewing on it at home. It is your body. Ask questions and discuss things. Only you know all your symptoms and lifestyle.
      Good luck.
      Please do not self medicate. especially if breast feeding

  44. QUESTION:
    Alopecia Areata I'm sick of it?
    I have had alopecia areata since a long time,and I'm getting homeopathic treatment for it.I've taken some allopathic medicines in the past, but to no avail.I have another question:does alopecia areata cause overall thinning of the hair and generalized hair fall??

    • ANSWER:
      "Alopecia areata is one type of hair loss that typically causes patches of baldness. In some cases total baldness develops. In many cases the hair re-grows, typically after several months. In some cases, the hair loss is permanent. Treatments to promote hair re-growth work in some cases." --- quoted verbatim from patient.co.uk
      http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Alopecia-Areata.htm

      Have you had your thyroid gland function checked to be sure there aren't any underlying problems with that as it is sometimes connected to hair loss. Plus you should be tested for various anaemias: pernicious (B12), iron and folate (folic acid) levels. The link above provides some more information. You should also have your hormone levels looked at. If you have high testosterone levels and that was a cause or contributing in any way you could take a pill called Dianette for instance that reduces testosterone. This also acts like a BCP so bare that in mind and one should be careful not to get pregnant on that in view of it reducing testosterone as it might have an effect on male foetuses. Alternatively one could drink lots of spearmint tea as it has been shown to reduce testosterone levels in women drinking that. Having said all that regarding testosterone, it is more linked with androgenic alopecia (male pattern baldness) rather than any other form of alopecia. Have you had a definitive diagnosis regarding your alopecia with appropriate tests.

      Have you tried blackseed oil to see if that helps. You could try that. Follow the procedure on this website:
      http://www.elshrouk.net/en/index.htm
      though most other websites suggest rubbing a lemon on the scalp first - you could try either way unless you are sensitive to citric acid or lemon juice on your skin. From the science, blackseed oil is anti-inflammatory and inflammatory mediatiors are linked to alopecia areata so it is worth trying but you may have to do that for long to see some results as hair grows slowly and hair growth may take some time to respond. You can do that alongside taking homeopathy. Arrange for those tests to be made also by your doctor if you have not yet done so already as you need to be sure your thyroid gland is functioning optimally and that you have do not have any form of anaemia (B12, iron or folate) and that your sex hormone levels are normal also.

      Best wishes.
      WaSalam.

  45. QUESTION:
    what's wrong with me im constantly tired?
    Well I am constantly tired even if I take a nap when I can I wake up tired. My breats are sore and my nipples aregetting larger, my mother suggested pregnancy but I don't know if I can even get pregnant I have had surgery twice for ovarian cysts and im only 21, my bf said he didn't cum in me and he doesn't pre cum... so help what else could it be?

    • ANSWER:
      Have a pregnancy test, because sperm can be released before that, in smaller numbers. A previous answer follows: I used to get colds and 'flu every winter, but since adopting the recommendations at http://www.mercola.com/ I have not had one for the last 3 years (no vaccines, either!). This I attribute not only to my enhanced immune system, but also to the antiviral, antibacterial, and anti fungal additives to my diet, which now makes my body a very poor environment for such organisms to multiply in.

      Dr Mercola recommends that everyone consume garlic, crushed between 2 spoons, to release the active constituents: I eat 2 cloves, daily. Odorless garlic is an option, although not the one I choose. He also recommends to alternate ginger and nutmeg, cloves and cinnamon, on a daily basis, to prevent the possibility of developing an allergy, but I have found that I can consume 2 level teaspoons of the following mix on a daily basis, with no problems: 1 part nutmeg; 2 parts cloves; 2 parts cinnamon; 20 parts ginger.

      I add one level teaspoon to a cup of green tea. I also include a small pinch of thyme, and a level teaspoonful of turmeric with my main meal. In addition, he advises people to get adequate daily exposure to sunlight, and to eat in accordance with their "nutritional type" as determined by using the searchbar on that, as well as "sunlight exposure" at his website, which is now the most popular alternative health website in the world.

      I strongly advise you to have a complete medical examination, including thyroid function, adrenals, blood sugar and levels of vitamin D3, magnesium, zinc, calcium, iron, and potassium: the works, in fact. You may be surprised by what is revealed. He recommends that you slowly SUCK, NOT CHEW, zinc lozenges for COLDS, only, at earliest onset http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/zinc.asp Why not subscribe to the regular, free Ezine at the mercola website? I have learned a LOT through it, and look forward to it.

      I have found that slowly sipping the spice drink causes my tonsillitis (of bacterial origin, or viral? http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/27000658/ ) to vanish in a few hours, but the above treatment is largely a PREVENTATIVE, rather than a remedy, so I have my doubts as to whether it would work quickly as a remedy, and consider that it may well be a synergistic effect between the herbs, spices, and the following, which needs to be built up, and maintained, but it works well for me, and many others.

      Take 4 Omega 3 fish oil supplements, daily: (certified free of mercury) it is best if consumed with an antioxidant, such as an orange, or its FRESHLY SQUEEZED juice. If vitamin E is added, it should be certified as being 100% from natural sources, or it may be synthetic: avoid it. In the winter months, if not getting sufficient daily exposure to strong light, see http://www.mercola.com SEARCHBAR: enter: "vitamin D3", & Go to a doctor and ask for a 25(OH)D, also called 25-hydroxyvitamin D, blood test. When you get the results, don’t follow the typical “normal” reference range, as these are too low. The OPTIMAL value that you’re looking for is 45-52 ng/ml (115-128 nmol/l)". The company which tests your levels has to be one of those using the correct form of test, and this topic is addressed via the searchbar at mercola.com - "vitamin D3; testing".

      I used to regularly get cysts in the armpits & groin, but since using the above, I have had only one small one, with little inflammation, and no pain, so you may wish to try it. Ovarian cysts merely reduce the chances of successful pregnancy, but check this out.

  46. QUESTION:
    Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism)?
    I was diagnosed with underactive thyroid hormones but a bad case.........

    I was a size 8 (uk) on my waist in march 2009 and even size 8 was too big for me, and now i have randomly gone up size 16 (uk) in the past few months :( i was wondering how this had happened none of my eating pattern had changed and I was actually eating less and exercising more.. i am now pale with sore muscles and a aching body. and i get very heavy periods and there always 12 days later than the day its meant to start.

    i read that this slows your metabolism down and its not very fair because i have a bad case mine must be sloww.....

    I was wondering if theres a way to fix this or will i always be fat and never be like i used to be??
    also does this make you grow slower because like i'm only 5ft3, and my dad is 6ft1 and my mom is 5ft 8 and all my female cousins are like 5ft7 or 8 and my male cousins are all 6ft1 - 6ft3 both sides on my family are tall!!!!!!
    i am 17 and i seem not to be growing like my breasts arent either, could this be the reason?

    i am sooo confused about this all and what is does to you and stuff.

    please helpp me!

    • ANSWER:
      A doctor can prescibe something like synthroid to bring your body and chemicals back up to normal levels.

  47. QUESTION:
    past thyroid cancer, now years later i have abnormal blood calcium?
    11 years ago i had a hemithyroidectomy due to follicular thyroid cancer. i have been fine since, and my bloods have always been fine. however past few weeks i have felt unwell. my docs did bloods and they found that my calcium level is only 1.9 mmols ( uk ref range). this aparantly is low. so now i am worried . today my doctors repeated my bloods and have checked my calcium and parathyroid levels, i am waiting for those results .
    i am worried about what is causing my calcium to suddenly get low 11 years after surgery. i am worried basically cos i think that i am getting a recurrence of my thyroid cancer, or some parathyroid cancer involvement. please help me, i need advice . god bless x

    • ANSWER:
      ' Answered this yesterday, and you were going to have some blood studies done.
      Your endocrinologist should be answering this for you.
      We must use a different measurement system for calcium here in the USA.
      A level of 1.9 doesn't fit our system. We don't use millimoles.
      In the U.S. - normal values range from 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL.
      Here's reference to the UK system. http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Hypocalcaemia.htm
      2.25 is the lower limit of "normal."
      Normal value ranges may vary among different laboratories.
      1.9 should be low but not dangerous.
      Your doctor really should be answering these questions for you.
      I think I would be upset if my explanations in the office were so inadequate
      that people had to resort to a forum like Yahoo answers and talk to strangers
      to get answers to simple questions.
      Do doctors not take the time to answer questions these days ?
      Most of my time as a hematologist/oncologist was spent explaining
      and answering questions. That was more time consuming than anything else I did
      except the paperwork necessary to document all that I had explained.
      I often gave patients copies of my dictated notes to reinforce
      what I had already explained verbally. People with cancer are often in shock and
      tend not to hear what we painstakingly explain, so I also gave it to them in writing.

  48. QUESTION:
    Can someone help with Thyroid questions?
    I have beeen on Synthroid for 22 years after thyroid cancer at age 11. I have had a lot of problems keeping my levels stable. They constantly go up and down. Everything is effected... skin, hair, energy, horomones weight grain etc. I have been feeling extremely fatiqued lately. i recently went to the DR and the following are my latests results:
    TSH: 0134
    Free T3 3.3
    Free T4 1.67

    I convinced my DR to switch me to Armour Thyroid. I just started it today. she only put me on 30 mg (1/2 a grain)

    Has anyone had similar experiences? Has anyone switched from Synthroid to Armour? What was your experience/results?

    Thanks,

    • ANSWER:
      It's hard for me to interpret your results since I don't know the reference ranges - I am used to seeing completely different numbers since we measure it in different units in the UK. But If you have been having a problem with stabilising your levels, then from experience Armour will only make that worse. People who switch to Armour usually do it because they are convinced they are still having symptoms, despite taking thyroxine correctly and having stable levels. They tend to say it makes them feel better, but when you look at their test results, they swing all over the place - hugely variable. The general opinion is that Armour is not so standardised - you aren't guaranteed to get exactly the same dose in each pill like you are with normal thyroxine (synthroid). Also, Armour has an unnaturally high proportion of T3 to T4 and people tend to struggle with having very high T3 and getting side effects from that.

      People on 'synthroid' usually have rock-solid thyroid levels - they stay the same for years and years. If you were taking your synthroid every day and at a constant dose (and not checking the blood levels until at least 2 months after any change in dose), then there must be another reason why your levels varied. Perhaps you have had gastrointestinal problems that affect how you are absorbing the medication?

  49. QUESTION:
    thyroid problems ? i am 15?
    Hey
    Ok so a few days ago I was diagnose with hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid) The endocrinologist said I already had it last timethey checked my TSH level that it has now worsened ( it was 10.64 this time) so he prescribed me with hormone replacements and told me i will have to have them for the rest of my life. Now, i know most of the causes of the problem but is it possible to have it without any underlying condition? and also, from your experience, did the drug ( i am taking levothyroxine sodium) affect your metabolism? and did the drug cause any changes at all? like did you stop being all tired and achy after a while taking it?
    thank you for reading :)

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,

      I think we would have to say that the low thyroid-hormone output, is of fairly recent origin. I mean, if you had been born with this, it would have severely affected your growth and development, - which I am assuming was normal, at least until recently?

      This must mean that you had good thyroid function when you were a child, and hence that some disease process must have damaged your thyroid gland. I don't think your thyroid gland would have failed for no reason, no.

      The replacement hormone, L-thyroxine, is pretty much identical to the natural hormone, and so long as you have the dose right things should return to normal in every way.

      If you've been tired and lacking energy for some time, I think it may take a month or two for things to perk up again. One thing I expect the doctor told you, is that it is often a good idea to start L-thyroxine at a very *low* dose, so as not to 'over-stimulate' or 'over-drive' the system initially? This safety measure itseIf, may lead you to suppose that progress is slow. If the doc has done this, the dose will certainly need to be increased in a month or two.

      I expect you will be having a thyroid blood test at least every month to start with, - the TSH readings will give a good guide to the best "maintenance" dose of L-thyroxine.

      I hope this is of some help.

      Best wishes,

      Belliger
      retired uk gp

  50. QUESTION:
    my grand child is 5 months and 20 days old. he got his Blood Tested in UK.?
    I give below result which indicates 'ABOVE RANGE' or 'BELOW RANGE" as per their report:
    (1)Thyroid Function Test:Serum TSH Level - REsult is 5.8(above range)
    (2)Serum Creatinine level - Result is < 20.0 (below range)
    (3)Platelet count (Observation) - 432 (above range)

    My question : 1. what does all mean ?
    2. what is the reason ?
    3. is it serious ?
    4. what is the remedy ?

    I do not know which category it belongs. so it may not fit in any category which is recommended by you

    • ANSWER:
      You need to ask the doctor about a remedy, but as far as I know... It's good to have a higher platelet count, and the thyroid is above normal possibly meaning hypothyroidism. However being so young, barely above normal, and only the first test it's way too soon to determine that.

what are normal thyroid levels uk