Tag Archives: early symptoms of graves disease

Early Symptoms Of Graves Disease

Frequently Asked Questions

    What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism or graves disease?
    I would like to hear from people who have some personal experience with this because i think i may be in the early stages of graves disease. my doctor wants me to have blood tests and an ultrasound of my thyroid, but i cannot do it right now because i don't have any health insurance. I have to wait until i have some way to pay for these tests and anything else if i do have the disease. my thyroid is definitely enlarged, and i have lost a lot of weight unintentionally.

    • ANSWER:
      I had Graves Disease (it's in remission right now), so maybe I can help you with this one. It's definitely something that you should get taken care of though, so maybe there's a way you can get yourself to a free clinic or something to get a simple blood test. Pretty much what brought me to the doctor initially was that I lost weight without really trying to. I also had a voracious appetite. Other symptoms that I only noticed later were dry skin, a dull headache above my eyes (I thought it was a sinus infection until I realized that it went away once my graves was under control), irritable mood swings (this is one of the main reasons you should get it taken care of asap- graves can affect your personality... it can trigger anxiety, irritability, inattention, etc.). Good luck and feel better! Luckily, graves is very treatable but unexplained weight loss can be symptomatic of other more serious illnesses, so you definitely need to get this taken care of.

    What is the earliest people start goin threw menapause?
    I am 26 yrs old and I have 24 out of 36 symptoms already. I am having a lot of female problems and the doctor can't figure out why. I have talked to a lot of family members and they believe I am going threw the change already.

    • ANSWER:
      All the studies I have read state 45 is the average age but, they say there is a marked increase in women in their 20's showing peri-menopause signs. Smoking is an external factor that can cause some women to experience early menopause.

      Another big possiblity might be an autoimmune disorder. In this case the body’s own antibodies and immune system, normally employed to fight off diseases, to suddenly attack and destroy healthy tissues within the system. While a common trigger for premature menopause, the category of autoimmune disorders is a wide one and covers a variety of conditions, ranging from thyroid disease to lupus or Graves’ disease. Of all of these, hypothyroidism is perhaps the most common; a condition in which the thyroid gland fails to produce sufficient amounts of thyroid hormone to keep the body’s metabolism running. It is believed that over 5 million Americans suffer from this condition and at least 10% of all women in the United States suffer from some degree of thyroid hormone deficiency. In many cases, people with hypothyroidism don’t even realize they have it until a condition, such as a premature menopause, draws attention to its presence.

      Genetics and defects in the chromosomes can also cause premature menopause. If a woman’s mother or sister has experienced menopause on or before the age of 40, there is a greater risk that she will also experience this condition. Chromosome defects can also cause problems, as in the case of women who are born without a second X chromosome (Turner’s syndrome). This causes the ovaries to form abnormally and prevents them from working properly, thereby triggering a premature menopause.

      In your specific case, it sounds like all has been normal until now so, I would bet it is auto-immune related. Has your Dr. done the auto-immune antibody titer blood test, looking for signs of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis? If you feel that you have hit a wall with your Dr. you might ask to be referred to an Endocrinologist. In my opinion they are so specialized in their field that they might get you to an answer quicker, especially if your problem is auto-immune related Hope this helps and you are able to find out & treat what the cause is for this hormone disruption.

    What are some things I should ask to get to know this girl that my mother is introducing me to?
    My mother is helping out because I was having troubles finding a girlfriend, so she is introducing me to this cute young Vietnamese young lady in Vietnam. The Vietnamese girl is in her early 20s and is very shy and very kind. What are some things I should ask this girl to get know her more ?? I'm lacking social skills so I need some help. She might end up being the girl who I will marry if we get along good.

    • ANSWER:
      James or whoever you really are. You've been trolling on Yahoo Answers for months and quite a few of us are onto you. Members of your family have communicated with some of us and we know your real story. You should know that you've pissed off everyone close to you with your obsessive behavior - this includes your parents. Contrary to what you believe, it's doubtful that your mother will be successful in arranging a bride for you if you continue to ignore your problem.

      If you really want to impress this cute Vietnamese girl, then you can start by acting like a real man. That means you need to stop cross dressing (yes.. I know about the cross dressing) and stop whining like a little girl . However, that's not the real problem. Your lack of social skills, not making it with the women and other issues is directly related to you being bipolar and refusing to take your medication.

      My dad's bipolar and I intimately know the symptoms and problems that you are having. Putting it simply - Your brain will not function properly without your medication. All the problems you think you have is because you refuse to admit you are bipolar and you refuse to follow what is necessary for you to live a relatively normal life. I swear on my grandmother's grave that your life will get better when you stay on your medication. However, your life will continue to spin out of control if you don't. If you don't believe me, then believe this:

      Bipolars account for more spousal abuse than any other mental disease.
      Bipolars account for more divorces than any other mental disease.
      Bipolars account for more people who are in prison than any other mental disease.

      If you don't face your disease and follow your doctor's recommendation, then you will destroy your fiance's life if you marry her. You will likely beat her because you can't control your emotions. That's going to lead to a divorce and probably prison for you. All because you are too selfish to man up and face your disease.

      You should know that you have family who love you dearly despite your problems and what you've done to them. You're VERY lucky to still have someone around because most bipolars run off everyone who were close to them and they end up alone and quite often homeless. Listen to them and get some help.

      Good luck to you... (seriously)...

    Is it true that most people parasites and toxic gunk in their bodies?
    A woman I know recently told me about a detoxification program she went through when she had graves disease and all the disgusting things that came out of her body...I have lupus and kidney disease and would like to do a detox but I'm not sure what kind of program I need to go on....your thoughts?
    typo: is it true that most people HAVE parasites....etc.

    • ANSWER:
      I believe that a detox can help.

      I'm actually on one right now to get all the excess synthetic hormones (from birth control stopped 5 months ago), toxins, and built up colon matter.

      BTW, to the 2 posters who are asking what "toxins" are... There are so many, that natural health companies probably can't list them all, and there's that small problem of the government and Big Pharma controlling what they put on their labels. They can't claim it helps anything, as no one besides the natural health company makes any profit from it, and Big Pharma can't patent it. Toxins include pesticides, air pollution breathed, and any other synthetic particles that aren't supposed to be in your system. As well, most people do not have normal bowel movements, especially people with constipation. Most of your body's toxins are released from your body through the colon (through feces). When you're constipated, it allow toxins in the feces to be reabsorbed into your bloodstream, as your bowels aren't moving as fast.

      Most skeptics have never experienced a cleanse before. Only 2 weeks into my cleanse, I already feel a difference. The only difference that I can notice right now is my libido change (sorry for the personal info, but it has to be explained). I used to have perfectly fine sexual health, until I started birth control pills 4 years ago. After going through 5 brands of birth control pills, having: no libido, migraines, severe GAD (caused by the BCP's), and the onset of menopause (also the cause of BCP, I'm in my early 20's, the 'menopause' symptoms stopped when I stopped the pills). Even after stopping my birth control, I didn't find any change in my sexual health/libido. Only now, taking my cleanse, I'm finally noticing a BIG difference!

      As for which detox you want to take, anything that cleanses the kidneys I guess, which is almost all of them.
      The cleanse I'm taking right now is called Cleanse Smart by Renew Life. It cleanses the 7 channels of elimination: lungs, blood, liver, kidneys, colon, skin, and lymphatic system.
      Another cleanse that is really popular is Colonix.

      Hope this helps!
      Good luck with your cleanse.

    What are some things I should ask to get to know this girl that my mother is introducing me to ?
    My mother is helping out because I was having troubles finding a girlfriend, so she is introducing me to this cute young Vietnamese young lady in Vietnam. The Vietnamese girl is in her early 20s and is very shy and very kind. What are some things I should ask this girl to get know her more ?? I'm lacking social skills so I need some help. She might end up being the girl who I will marry if we get along good.

    • ANSWER:
      James or whoever you really are. You've been trolling on Yahoo Answers for months and quite a few of us are onto you. Members of your family have communicated with some of us and we know your real story. You should know that you've pissed off everyone close to you with your obsessive behavior - this includes your parents. Contrary to what you believe, it's doubtful that your mother will be successful in arranging a bride for you if you continue to ignore your problem.

      If you really want to impress this cute Vietnamese girl, then you can start by acting like a real man. That means you need to stop cross dressing (yes.. I know about the cross dressing) and stop whining like a little girl . However, that's not the real problem. Your lack of social skills, not making it with the women and other issues is directly related to you being bipolar and refusing to take your medication.

      My dad's bipolar and I intimately know the symptoms and problems that you are having. Putting it simply - Your brain will not function properly without your medication. All the problems you think you have is because you refuse to admit you are bipolar and you refuse to follow what is necessary for you to live a relatively normal life. I swear on my grandmother's grave that your life will get better when you stay on your medication. However, your life will continue to spin out of control if you don't. If you don't believe me, then believe this:

      Bipolars account for more spousal abuse than any other mental disease.
      Bipolars account for more divorces than any other mental disease.
      Bipolars account for more people who are in prison than any other mental disease.

      If you don't face your disease and follow your doctor's recommendation, then you will destroy your fiance's life if you marry her. You will likely beat her because you can't control your emotions. That's going to lead to a divorce and probably prison for you. All because you are too selfish to man up and face your disease.

      You should know that you have family who love you dearly despite your problems and what you've done to them. You're VERY lucky to still have someone around because most bipolars run off everyone who were close to them and they end up alone and quite often homeless. Listen to them and get some help.

      Good luck to you... (seriously)...

    How common is it for one with Hyperthyroidism to develop Hypothyroidism..?
    For instance, would one who had an over-active thyroid during tween/teens and early 20;s, "flip" and develop an under-active/sluggish thyroid *mid 20's and into 30's?

    Is it possible (same person) could have bouts of Hypothyroidism during the years when they had an overactive thyroid?

    If so, what would trigger this?

    The on-line data and sites are immense, so any/all referrals to a concise and reliable site would be greatly appreciated!

    • ANSWER:
      "Some patients actually have both Hashimoto's and Graves' disease antibodies, which puts the thyroid into a push-pull situation, where it cycles up and down through hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. This is not a very common situation, but hypothyroidism patients who frequently have hyperthyroidism symptoms should ask their doctors for full antibody profiles to detect the presence of both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease."

      "Imbalances in the autonomic nervous system - known as dysautonomia - are more common in autoimmune thyroid disease. In dysautonomia, the sympathetic system - part of the autonomic nervous system that controls the body's "fight or flight" reactions - becomes unbalanced. Symptoms of dysautonomia can include anxiety attacks and rapid heartbeat, among many other symptoms."

      "Some patients who have the autoimmune condition known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis are diagnosed during a period when they are hypothyroid. But in a thyroid that is failing due to autoimmune disease, the thyroid can frequently sputter into overdrive, then back into underactivity, and into overdrive again, as it "burns itself out" over time. You can, therefore, experience periods of overactivity - hyperthyroidism - even while your thyroid is underactive over time and generally on its way to burning itself out. So, you can experience hypothyroidism symptoms, but periodically have hyperthyroidism symptoms that also appear. And remember...hyperthyroidism symptoms don't "cancel out" your hypothyroidism symptoms...they more often are added to them.

      At the same time, Hashimoto's can also mean that periodically, the thyroid experiences a flare-up, or "attack" of thyroiditis, which is frequently accompanied by symptoms such as palpitations. Noted thyroid expert Stephen Langer, M.D., who coauthored the popular thyroid book Solved: The Riddle of Illness with James Scheer, refers to thyroiditis as like an "arthritis of the thyroid." He explains that just as arthritis attacks the joints with pain and inflammation, thyroiditis can mean pain and inflammation in the thyroid for some sufferers. And in particular, during a thyroiditis attack, common symptoms you might experience are anxiety, panic attacks, heart palpitations and problems sleeping. - all common hyperthyroidism symptoms - as well as swelling in the thyroid area, and problems swallowing."

      Based on all these passages, yes, you can have hyperthyroidism turned hypothyroidism. The website also mentions that every hypothyroid or hyperthyroid patient has atypical symptoms, so those alone don't mean your thyroidism has switched. If your thyroid levels (TSH, free T3, free T4, etc.) are showing hypothyroidism now and not because of too much medication, then you should ask to be tested for antibodies for hyper- and hypothyroidism.

    How important do you think is diet itself as a form of alternative therapy ?

    • ANSWER:
      hey buddy ........ how important?? i think it's crucial ......... absolutely critical to nail food / chemical intolerances and / or allergies ..... and that's coming from someone who they near locked up and threw away the key (after they'd slugged me to the eyeballs with toxicantipsychotics cos they couldn't work it out) ....... and the base starting point for all my neural and digestive wild malfunctioning was fructose and lactose intolerance ...... eeeew, i was existing on just that.. copious amounts of alcohol and chocolate ..... the foods and drinks you love the most are usually the ones that are causing the most drama .... total elimination of those to nasties and i'm completely symptom free ...... easier to say than do i assure you ..... but hey ..... i'm living proof that the side effects produced by food and or chemical intolerances can produce symptoms covering almost the whole range of known "illnesses and diseases"....... i mean to say... good grief.... they've told me i was bipolar / schizophrenic, had rheumatoid arthritis, gout, an incurable insomniac ....... all of which "spontaneously healed" when i finally figured it out..... a limited choice of foods for moi ....... but i supplement with organic powdered spirulina and a chelated calcium powder and i eat fresh meats and fresh fishes and some raw nuts and seeds and some green salads and lots of celery juice and potatoes, organic rolled oats and some sour doughs and i have no symptoms of bipolar schizophrenia, arthritis, gout, temper tantrums, bizarre constipation bloating cramping, insomnia ..... none at all ... i do so suffer immediately with chronic terrible debilitating fatigue, nasty arthritis, awful mood swings, horrible stomach aches and killer migraines if i so much as have a mouthfull of fructose sucrose sorbitol lactose .... s*tuffs eating or drinking from a highly refined prepackaged nutritionally void package ....... but hey, who wants to do that anyway.

      yeah buddy ..... i was eating my way to an early grave ..... and i'm so very stubborn and so willfull that i finally got what i wanted .... that's why i put up with the nasties in here ..... cos the TruTH has to be told .... people do listen ....... people want to know how to get their bounce back.

      and the truth shall set you free hey....... gosh, never a truer word was spoken.

      peace baby

    Can any medical professional give me some sound advice on this matter?
    I honestly didn't even know what category to post this under....

    I have been having a mystery illness for almost 2 years and its literally ruining my life. :o(
    All my symtoms jump around and are rarely there at the same time as eachother.
    My symptoms are:
    bladder pain/urgency
    dizzy/woozyness (like a drunk feeling)
    rapid heart rate
    vaginal and rectal discomfort(while bladder pain here)
    chest pains(in the middle)
    headaches(mostly mild but annoying)
    grinding teeth in the daytime
    adrenal rushes
    some panic
    sudden severe scalen(neck) pain on left side
    sometimes feels like adrenalin rushing to my head. feels like my veins are popping out and pressure
    red, not painful, non itchy, flea bite sized red bumps on various parts of body, mainly stomach, upper back, behind ears, hands and forarms.
    red lines on body that look like a 2-3 inch red ball point pen drew a line
    red lines that are shaped lik U's on hands or forarms
    tingling ove scalp, though only 1 side of the head at a time.
    some days I'm a little constipated, and some days I go contiuosly all day long (not diarreah)

    before 2 years ago, I felt perfectly fine.

    I am on Remeron 15 mg a day now for sleep, because with the adrenalin rushing, I would start to fall asleep, but then a sudden jolt/boom feeling came into my chest and would let me fall asleep. weird, I know.
    I have had the whole medical work up. mri's, brain scan, extensive blood panels, lumbar puncture, cystoscopy, etc...
    One rheumatologist found I had very high thyroidroid antibodies. Over 2000.
    I have seen 2 endocrinologists. All blood levels come back completely normal and in range. The first Endo said I had hashimotos thyroiditis, but the 2nd endo said I show both Hashimotos AND graves disease. But again, blood levels are to normal, so no medication for me. :o(

    The 2nd endo thought MAYBE its causing my symptoms,or MAYBE I have a 3rd autoimmune disease.

    i was checked extensively for Lupus and MS. All Clear....so far, at least

    I have yet another appointment with a 3rd Endocrinologist at UCLA to see if any bells ring for them.

    I really need help. Its ruining my quality of life. I'm in bed half the time in serious discomfort, and I can barely take care of my son. Thank goodness my husband is such a great dad.
    We cant plan any vacations or anything much at all, because I never know how I wake up feeling. I DO get a few good hours now and then, but it used to be a few good weeks, then a few good days, now its down to hours. I have seen some top doctors in L.A. and even scripps, and no luck. I have seen rheumatologists, neurologists, infectious disease, gynecologists, psychiatrists(just incase )endocrinologists...the list goes on. If anyone with some medical experience has any advice of what to to next, or who to see, I would be most grateful. By the way, I am female and 47.
    forgot to mention, I also get elbow/forearm muscle pain, and my hands fall asleep alot while sleeping, and I'm not laying on them at all.
    one more thing...sorry
    I had an ultrasound of my thyroid. No nodules, but did show the hashimotos
    The last, yet oddest thing is that I cannot take hardly any medications without it giving me an adverse effect. I suddenly became hyper sensitive to everything. even advil. Antibiotics give me anxiety now for now reason. Even medicated creams and medicated eyedrops raise my heart rate.

    • ANSWER:
      I have no idea what your problem is but I feel for you. I do think there is a huge amount of stress going on (no wonder) you could be having symptoms of early Menopause, hormones acting up can cause a whole lot of problems. As for the red bumps... I know this sounds awful but have you checked for bed bugs. even the cleanest of homes can get them, if there has been any traveling in your family they can be brought home in suit cases or on clothing. I know it's a nasty thought but with everything going on with you , you need to check every single thing. you will have to be your own detective, something happened 2 years ago that is causing all this trouble. so start thinking back to just before all this started, and see if you can think of a reason for all of this. Good luck, and if you can somehow let me know how you get on please do.

    What are the symptoms of THYROID related to EYE ? Please reply me.?
    I am facing the following symptoms.

    1. morning temperatures below 97.5

    2. very poor wound healing

    3. eye floaters, eye strain ,entoptic phenomena

    4. Halos around lights and glares while seeing lights at night times.

    5. Eye pain and headaches many times in a day.

    What are these symptoms related to ??

    I had consulted 2 opthamaologists and everything was fine.

    Please help me by replying this ?

    • ANSWER:
      Eye signs in hyperthyroidism:

      Eye signs include stare, eyelid lag, eyelid retraction, and mild conjunctival injection and are largely due to excessive adrenergic stimulation. They usually remit with successful treatment. Infiltrative ophthalmopathy, a more serious development, is specific to Graves' disease and can occur years before or after hyperthyroidism. It is characterized by orbital pain, lacrimation, irritation, photophobia, increased retro-orbital tissue, exophthalmos, and lymphocytic infiltration of the extraocular muscles, producing ocular muscle weakness that frequently leads to double vision.

      In Hypothyroidism:

      # Ocular changes are not common in hypothyroidism but the high levels of blood cholesterol and circulating fat can sometimes lead to eye changes.
      # Corneal dystrophy, an abnormal change in the clear covering of the eye.This finding is usually represented as a small white spot (sometimes a white circle) on the eye surface.
      # In more severe forms, painful bubbles can erupt on the corneal surface leading to ulceration.

      Obviously, you have none of these. It could an early cataract.

    What do you know about schizophrenia?
    i am very curious about the disease, any information is welcome.

    • ANSWER:
      Schizophrenia is a pretty complex disorder and like most disorders effects people on an individual basis.

      Both males and females can develop schizophrenia and usually the condition is on set in a their late teens, early twenties. It does also take time to fully diagnose, sometimes the symptoms can be similar to other disorders or from drug abuse, so only a mental health profession can do this.

      Psychosis is when someone losses touch with reality. This is a state that is not momentary but ongoing for at least a month.
      In schizophrenia this may involve delusional thinking, paranoid thoughts about other or themselves, hallucinations in the form of hearing voices from people who aren't there or sounds/music, seeing people/animals who aren't really there and sometimes smells (which are usually unpleasant such as rotting flesh).

      An onset of psychosis is usually referred to a psychotic episode. Its important to not that psychotic is not the same as psychopathic. Hollywood entertainment has do a marvelous job at stereotyping and confusing the term 'psychotic' with violent behaviour. Another popular misconception is the schizophrenic have multiple personalities. Multiple personality disorder (which is known as dissociative identity disorder) is a completely different condition, very rare and usually associated with post traumatic stress disorder.

      Psychosis can also be present in other psychiatric disorders such as psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, schizo-affective disorder, major depression (psychotic depression), temporal lobe epilepsy, sleep deprivation, drug and alcohol abuse. Also other medical conditions such as graves disease, malaria and so on. So it is up to the mental health professional to eliminate these possibilities before a diagnosis of schizophrenia is given. Usually if the psychosis is reactive to extreme shift in mood then then a doctor will usually diagnose a mood disorder with psychotic features.

      However depression can be a secondary condition to schizophrenia and often psychosis is followed by a period of depression.

      Another factor in schizophrenia is the presences of a 'though disorder'. This is when the thinking and speech is disorganized and in extreme cases a person will 'word salad' which makes perfect sense to the schizophrenic but very little to no sense to others.

      Also social withdrawal, strange behaviours, flatness in mood, lack of motivation can be present in schizophrenia.

      It does affect people differently and often not every symptom on the list is present. Usually a person will be categorized into a type of schizophrenia depending on what cluster of symptoms they have.You should look into the different categories of schizophrenia such as paranoid schizophrenia or disorganized schizophrenia for more information.

      Often people with schizophrenia are hospitalised during psychotic stages and treated with anti-psychotic medication. Also anti-depressants can be prescribed for depression, sometimes mood stabilizer medication. But it does greatly vary from person to person.

      I was hospitalised with first episode psychosis and one doctor diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia but I think it was a misdiagnosis. My psychosis was linked more to my untreated long term depression but presented very much like schizophrenia (voices, delusions, paranoia).
      I go stabilized on anti psychotics, anti depressant medication and with psycho dynamic therapy. I'm about to finish my degree so I'm defiantly getting better :-)

      Hope you found this info useful :-)

    Can you pregnant without a thyroid gland?
    I was born wihtout a thyroid and I have to take the generic synthroid pills every day for the rest of my life. I was told that it'll be hard to get pregnant or not being able to get pregnant at all. I have been trying for a year so far and no luck. I'm 18 years old and I don't want to have to adopt a child. I want to have my own children. Please help me! :(
    I'm engaged.. I don't want to wait.

    • ANSWER:
      Simple answer is yes you can get pregnant - but it comes with significant risk to your own health, and the health of the baby. You really should consult with your doctor first before thinking about becoming pregnant, or carrying a baby to term.

      For the first 10-12 weeks of pregnancy, the baby is completely dependent on the mother for the production of thyroid hormone. By the end of the first trimester, the baby’s thyroid begins to produce thyroid hormone on its own. The baby, however, remains dependent on the mother for ingestion of adequate amounts of iodine, which is essential to make the thyroid hormones.

      One major risk is Graves disease. Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by the production of antibodies that stimulate thyroid gland referred to as thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI). These antibodies do cross the placenta and can interact with the baby’s thyroid.

      Graves disease may present initially during the first trimester or may be exacerbated during this time in a woman known to have hyperthyroidism or deficient thyroid hormone production. In addition to the classic symptoms associated with hyperthyroidism, inadequately treated maternal hyperthyroidism can result in early labor and a serious complication known as pre-eclampsia. Additionally, women with active Graves’ disease during pregnancy are at higher risk of developing very severe hyperthyroidism known as thyroid storm.

      Low levels of thyroid hormone can interfere with ovulation, which impairs fertility. In addition, some of the causes of hypothyroidism — such as autoimmune disorder — also impair fertility. Treating hypothyroidism with thyroid hormone replacement therapy may not fully restore fertility.

      Babies born to women with untreated thyroid disease may have a higher risk of birth defects than may babies born to healthy mothers. These children are also more prone to serious intellectual and developmental problems. Infants with untreated hypothyroidism present at birth are at risk of serious problems with both physical and mental development. But if this condition is diagnosed within the first few months of life, the chances of normal development are excellent.

    how can i tell if i have a bad heart valve?
    Is there anyway, from home, that I could rule out a bad heart valve as the cause for my heart palpitations and arythmia?

    • ANSWER:
      if from HOME, there is no way, not unless you are experiencing already ankle edema and dyspnea or shortness of breath, however, these signs and symptoms are for massive valvular damage already. If you really wana rule out bad heart valve, consult a doctor as early as you can. Because bad heart valves can lead you to grave compications such as left and right sided heart failure. Heart palpitations and arrythmia may not be due to bad valves, however they do exist in lates stages of valvular damage, specifically atrial fibrillation in severe mitral valve disease. Better consult a doctor! Upon cnsulatation, the doctor will ask you lots of questions on previous infections particularly sore throat or tonsillopharyngitis because it is the most common cause of valve damage. Valve damage can either be congenital or autoimmune.

    what is conjugal heritius eye disease?
    Normally causes loss of vision in both eyes but now always. Also, it's more common in those of Asian descent. I can't find any information on this eye disease on the net....can anyone direct me as to where I can locate this information?

    • ANSWER:
      Angle closure glaucoma (ACG) or closed angle glaucoma is the common form of glaucoma in people of Asian origin.
      You can't feel it, but rising pressure in the eye can silently steal your sight, a condition called glaucoma. There may be no symptoms until some peripheral vision is lost, so regular eye tests are critical to find it early. Those at higher risk include:
      * People of black-African or black-Caribbean origin
      * People of Asian origin
      In the most common form of glaucoma, too much fluid builds up inside the eye. That increases pressure and damages the optic nerve at the back -- the bundle of one million nerve fibres that carry information to the brain. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total blindness.
      Diabetic retinopathy and Graves' disease (due to hyperthyroidism) are also on the increase among asians.


    • ANSWER:
      Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by and stored in the pituitary gland, which is located beneath the brain. The release of TSH into the bloodstream stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones, called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

      When the pituitary gland detects that thyroid hormone levels are too low, it secretes more TSH. If the pituitary gland detects too much thyroid hormone, it releases less TSH.

      Thyroid hormone tests are blood tests that check how well the thyroid gland is working.

      Normal values may vary from lab to lab. Results are usually available within a few days.

      Labs generally measure free T4 (FT4) levels, but also may measure total thyroxine (T4) and T3 uptake (T3U). Results of these thyroid hormone tests may be compared to your thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) results.

      Thyroid hormone tests Total thyroxine (T4): 11.8–22.6 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL) or 152–292 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L) in newborns up to 14 days old

      6.4–13.3 mcg/dL (83–172 nmol/L) in babies and older children

      5.4–11.5 mcg/dL (57–148 nmol/L) in adults

      Free thyroxine (FT4): 0.7–2.0 ng/dL nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL) or 10–26 picomoles per liter (pmol/L)

      Total triiodothyronine (T3): 32–250 ng/dL (0.49–3.85 nmol/L) in newborns up to 14 days old

      82–245 ng/dL (1.3–3.8 nmol/L) in babies and older children

      80–200 ng/dL (1.2–3.1 nmol/L) in adults

      Free triiodothyronine (FT3): 260–480 pg/dL (4.0–7.4 pmol/L)

      Free thyroxine index (FTI): 1.5–4.5 (index)

      Many conditions can change thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor will talk with you about any abnormal results that may be related to your symptoms and past health.

      High values
      High thyroid hormone levels (hyperthyroidism) may be caused by:

      Diseases of the thyroid gland, such as Graves' disease, thyroiditis, or a goiter that contains one or more abnormal growths (nodules).
      Taking too much thyroid medicine.
      Low values
      Low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism) may be caused by:

      Thyroid disease, such as thyroiditis.
      Pituitary gland disease.
      Destruction of the thyroid gland by surgery or radiation

      Reasons you may not be able to have the test or why the results may not be helpful include:

      Taking certain medicines, such as:
      Corticosteroids, estrogen, progesterone, or birth control pills.
      Blood-thinning medicines such as aspirin, heparin, or warfarin (Coumadin).
      Antiseizure medicines such as Dilantin or Tegretol.
      Heart medicines such as amiodarone or propranolol.
      Having recently had an X-ray test that uses contrast material.
      Being pregnant.

    what physical features will allow you to determine quickly whether to check GH or thyroxine levels?

    • ANSWER:
      GH or the growth hormone can cause problems when secreted in too large or too little quantities. If there is oversecretion, often a condition referred to as acromegaly is observed - physical manifestations would be heaviness of the jaw and increased size of digits. If there is reduced secretion, it is noticeable in early childhood by various developmental problems - reduced growth, muscular development, etc. There are also recognizable facial features (maxillary hypoplasia and forehead prominence).
      I would look at the thyroxine levels in case of obvious hyperthyroidism, which can have a whole bunch of symptoms - from weight loss, heat intolerance, weakness to nervous systems symptoms. Most obvious in Grave's disease are the enlarged (bulging) eyes and the presence of an enlarged thyroid gland (a goiter).
      Hypothyroidism (too little secretion) can also cause goiter as well as dry, puffy skin on the face, problems with the menstrual cycle, muscle weakness and so much more (but not so much physical).

    What is thyroid? Is it dangerous disease? What are the side effects? How to cure thyroid?

    • ANSWER:
      What is the Thyroid?
      The thyroid is a small gland, shaped like a butterfly, located in the lower part of your neck. The function of a gland is to secrete hormones. The main hormones released by the thyroid are triiodothyronine, abbreviated as T3, and thyroxine, abbreviated as T4. These thyroid hormones deliver energy to cells of the body.

      What Diseases and Conditions Affect the Thyroid?

      The most common problems that develop in the thyroid include:

      Hypothyroidism -- An underactive thyroid.
      Hyperthyroidism -- An overactive thyroid.
      Goiter -- An enlarged thyroid.
      Thyroid Nodules -- Lumps in the thyroid gland.
      Thyroid Cancer -- Malignant thyroid nodules or tissue.
      Thyroiditis -- Inflammation of the thyroid.

      When the thyroid gland is underactive, improperly formed at birth, surgically removed all or in part, or becomes incapable of producing enough thyroid hormone, a person is said to be hypothyroid. One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is the autoimmune disease called Hashimoto's disease, in which antibodies gradually target the thyroid and destroy its ability to produce thyroid hormone.

      Symptoms of hypothyroidism usually go along with a slowdown in metabolism, and can include fatigue, weight gain, and depression, among others.

      When the thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too much thyroid hormone, a person is said to be hyperthyroid. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is the autoimmune condition known as Graves' disease, where antibodies target the gland and cause it to speed up hormone production.

      Autoimmune Thyroid Disease
      Most thyroid dysfunction such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is due to autoimmune thyroid disease. Autoimmune disease refers to a condition where the body's natural ability to differentiate between its tissues, organs and glands, vs. outside bacteria, viruses or pathogens, becomes disrupted. This causes the immune system to wrongly mount an attack on the affected area, by producing antibodies. In the case of autoimmune thyroid disease, antibodies either gradually destroy the thyroid, or make it overactive.

      Goiter/Thyroid Nodules
      Sometimes the thyroid becomes enlarged -- due to Hashimoto's disease, Graves' disease, nutritional deficiencies, or other thyroid imbalances. When the thyroid become enlarged, this is known as a goiter.

      Some people develop solid or liquid filled cysts, lumps, bumps and tumors -- both benign and cancerous -- in the thyroid gland. These are known as thyroid nodules.

      Thyroid Cancer
      A small percentage of thyroid nodules are cancerous. While thyroid cancer is a rare cancer, it's on the rise.

      Thyroid cancer, especially early in its development, may not cause any symptoms at all.
      But as a thyroid cancer grows and develops, it is more likely to cause symptoms. Some of the symptoms that may point to thyroid cancer include the following:

      A lump, or nodule in the neck -- especially in the front of the neck, in the area of the Adam's apple. (Note: Sometimes, the lump or nodule will be growing quickly.) (Find out how to do a Thyroid Neck Check to look for lumps or enlargement.)

      Enlargement of the neck

      Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck

      Hoarseness, difficulty speaking normally, voice changes

      Difficulty swallowing, or a choking feeling

      Difficulty breathing

      Pain in the neck or throat, including pain from the neck to the ears

      Sensitivity in the neck -- discomfort with neckties, turtlenecks, scarves, necklaces

      Persistent or chronic cough not due to allergies or illness

      Asymmetry in the thyroid (big nodule on one side, nothing on the other)

      Nodules that when manipulated give the impression that the entire thyroid is moving (this is often a sign of an aggressive cancer)

      Nodules that cause the wind pipe to go to one side of the neck, as well as cause superior vena cava syndrome

      Some particularly aggressive thyroid tumors can go to the brain and cause neurological symptoms

      Diagnosis of thyroid cancer typically involves a number of procedures and tests.

      Physical Exam
      Your doctor should conduct a thorough physical exam, including palpation of your thyroid to feel for enlargement and lumps, as well as the gland's size and firmness. The doctor will also look for any enlarged lymph nodes in your neck.
      Find out more about what is involved in a thorough clinical examination of the thyroid.

      Doctors often biopsy suspicious thyroid nodules, to evaluate for potential cancer. Typically thyroid nodules are biopsied using a needle, in a procedure known as "fine needle aspiration biopsy" -- sometimes abbreviated FNA. Some patients have a surgical biopsy, where the nodule, or the thyroid gland itself, is removed surgically.
      This Q&A on Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid has detailed information on the procedure.

      Imaging Tests
      A variety of imaging scans are used to evaluate thyroid nodules

      Kelsey, you have a tremendous amount of misconceptions in your post - mostly being very negative & going to extremes i.e. saying that if your thyroid is not working you have cancer, once you find out you have Thyroid Cancer it is basically too late to do much, etc. Most people survive this disease. Just because you are a nursing student doesn't mean you know it all. Before you post an answer, make sure you know what you are talking about. You can upset a lot of people with your information.

    My TSH is 0.01 whereas my Free T3 and FreeT4 are normal. I feel horrible. I'm told that I am ok. Now what?
    I exibit 90% of the symptoms of Graves Disease but my endocrinologist tells me that I am ok. If this is considered "ok" then why do i feel so horrible? I wish someone could help me. My thyroid US indicates that my thyroid is enlarged and that I have several nodules that are solid and cystic. It was suggested by the radiologist that the nodules be biopsied. I have not had any response from my endocrinologist. I need to start feeling better. I can barely function at all.

    • ANSWER:
      It is NOT okay.
      If TSH is 0.01, you would be expected to be having major symptoms, despite free T3 and free T4 that are normal.

      I was already seeing an endocrinologist for a different endocrine disease (all told, I have four endocrine diseases) when I developed low TSH. My TSH never dropped below 0.12 on our testing, and my T3 and T4 stayed normal. Nonetheless, I lost 22 pounds- from 119 to 97 lb- developed a full body tremor, my resting pulse rose by 20 bpm, I developed panic attacks, my hair thinned out.

      TSH that is less than 0.3 is a strong sign of one of the diseases causing thyrotoxicity. You are considered to have "subclinical" thyrotoxicity if the T3 and T4 are normal, but it is still usually indicative of thyroid disease.
      About 70% of cases of low TSH are from Grave's disease. It is more likely to be Grave's disease if the TSH is very low (the lower, the more likely, with 0.01 being more likely Grave's than not) but there are a number of other possible causes.

      When my TSH was that low, the next thing (after T3 and T4) to get tested was my thyroid antibody levels. I had had them tested and they were negative a few years earlier; they were negative still. In Grave's and Hashimoto's disease, usually at least one of the thyroid antibodies will be possitive, however, antibody positivity does not absolutely distinguish between them.
      The next step (which would have been the next step even if my antibodies had been positive) was a radioactive iodine test. A radioactive iodine test can diagnose Grave's disease with full certainty (and it can rule it out too). My radioactive iodine test showed that I had subacute thyroiditis, and not Grave's disease. Since subacute thyroiditis is self limiting, the treatment is just for the symptoms (like beta blockers to protect the heart) and the thyroid disease either fixes itself or eventually turns into hypothyroidism. Even though I did get better, it took many months after the TSH normalized (and it was abnormal for many months) for me to feel better.

      Thyrotoxic nodular disease is responsible for about 10% of cases of hyperthyroidism. It doesn't fix itself, and it does need treatment. You should probably see another endocrinologist.

      A TSH of 0.01 is never okay.

    Whats the life expectency for early stage MS?
    my friend who is 28 has been diagnosed with early MS (multiple schlorosis) i say early cos the symptoms are very mild (hand tremors, dropping things etc) naturally she is very upset about this what is the life expectancy for this? i want top tell her something that may give her hope

    • ANSWER:
      In general MS does not affect life expectancy and people with MS usually have normal lifespans.

      In the few cases where MS shorten life expectancies it is not because of the MS itself, but from complications caused by the MS. For example if you are bedridden, then you have a higher risk of pneumonia etc. Overall, MS is not considered a fatal disease.

      There is an aggressive form of MS that can be fatal, but it is extremely rare and there is some discussion whether it is actually MS or not. I almost did not mention it (and many MS sites don't) because it is so rare, but I'm doing it anyway in case you stumble over it in your research and get frightened by it.

      The problem for the newly diagnosed is that the general knowledge about the disease is often limited to the worst case scenarios. Someone always knows someone who is in a wheel chair etc. Fact is that only about 15% of those diagnosed with MS will end up in a wheel chair or bedridden. Approx. 5% live completely normal lives without the MS affecting them in any way, and most of us are somewhere in between these two extremes.

      Also with the new disease modifying medicines the prognosis is looking better and better for relapsing-remitting MS patients. 40 years ago there was no treatment, then late 80s early 90s the first disease modifying that lower the attack rate with approx. 1/3 drugs became available. These are still the first choice medicines, but they might be replaced next year with BG-12 which can lower the attack rate by 50%, and two other first choice medicines are also currently being tested - and for the cases with aggressive MS there are even stronger and more effective treatments such as Gilenya and Tysabri.

      Give her hope by pointing out the many people who are living near normal lives with MS, point to the advances in medical science, don't treat her as if she has one foot in the grave (she doesn't!), and talk to her... ask her if she wants to talk about it, or if she wants the two of you to just hang out like before so that she can get a break from all the worrying.

      Also, most people with MS prefer to be asked what they can and cannot do, instead of people jumping to conclusions, so ask her what she prefers. When I was first diagnosed, friends and family were grieving as if I had died and insisted on wrapping me in cotton wool. That gets exhausting. Of course today I have the opposite problem, that they have "forgotten" I am sick and often forget to take it into consideration, but I guess it is a bit of a luxury problem since it is because I am doing so well that they generally don't notice that I have MS, it's probably just my husband, neurologist, and MS nurse who really have an idea of how it affects me.

      I like to compare living with MS like crossing a road blindfolded, you might get hit by a bus, but then again, you might not.

    What are the side effects of losing weight by not eating?10 points :)?
    Also why for models homeless and other people who dont eat go through starvation mode and gain weight?

    • ANSWER:
      Starvation is a severe reduction in vitamin, nutrient and energy intake. It is the most extreme form of malnutrition. In humans, prolonged starvation can cause permanent organ damage and eventually, death. The term inanition refers to the symptoms and effects of starvation.
      According to the World Health Organization, hunger is the single gravest threat to the world's public health. The WHO also states that malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of all cases.

      Individuals experiencing starvation lose substantial fat (adipose) and muscle mass as the body breaks down these tissues for energy. Catabolysis is the process of a body breaking down its own muscles and other tissues in order to keep vital systems such as the nervous system and heart muscle (myocardium) functioning. Vitamin deficiency is a common result of starvation, often leading to anemia, beriberi, pellagra, and scurvy. These diseases collectively can also cause diarrhea, skin rashes, edema, and heart failure. Individuals are often irritable and lethargic as a result.

      Early symptoms include impulsivity, irritability, hyperactivity and possibly submissiveness.[6] Atrophy (wasting away) of the stomach weakens the perception of hunger, since the perception is controlled by the percentage of the stomach that is empty. Victims of starvation are often too weak to sense thirst, and therefore become dehydrated.
      All movements become painful due to muscle atrophy and dry, cracked skin that is caused by severe dehydration. With a weakened body, diseases are commonplace. Fungi, for example, often grow under the esophagus, making swallowing unbearably painful.
      The energy deficiency inherent in starvation causes fatigue and renders the victim more apathetic over time. As the starving person becomes too weak to move or even eat, their interaction with the surrounding world diminishes.
      There is also an inability to fight diseases, and in females, irregular menstruation can occur.

      Weight gain is caused by fluid retention, not by uscle mass

    Graves Disease and Pregnancy?
    I have had graves disease for about four years now. I haven't ever had really any symptoms of it..I take one pill of Methizole at night before I go to bed. I was just wondering how graves disease and pregnancy works...I read online but most of the time it doesn't clarify what usually occurs (just what COULD happen) Anyways, just wondering if anyone maybe had a friend or knew someone that had graves disease and got pregnant...what happened? what to expect?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Amber,

      According to my sources, provided it is treated correctly during pregnancy there should be no problems for you and baby. Left untreated it can lead to miscarriage or preterm labour.
      Recommended treatment is Propylthiouracil (PTU) in the lowest effective dose. Methimazolw (Tazpazole) may be used also. If neither drug can be used for you, then surgery to remove the thyroid gland would be required but they usually prefer to do this in the early stages of the 2nd trimester to avoid miscarriage or preterm delivery. Radioactive iodine is not safe to use during pregnancy so this wouldn't form part of any recommended treatment.
      I hope this is of some help - good luck and best wishes

    1. What did they do with the dead of the black plague? 2.How did they know a town or city gad the plague?

    • ANSWER:
      Since China was one of the busiest of the world's trading nations, it was only a matter of time before the outbreak of plague in China spread to western Asia and Europe. In October of 1347, several Italian merchant ships returned from a trip to the Black Sea, one of the key links in trade with China. When the ships docked in Sicily, many of those on board were already dying of plague. Within days the disease spread to the city and the surrounding countryside. An eyewitness tells what happened:

      bubonic plague"Realizing what a deadly disaster had come to them, the people quickly drove the Italians from their city. But the disease remained, and soon death was everywhere. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left to care for the sick, and monasteries and convents were soon deserted, as they were stricken, too. Bodies were left in empty houses, and there was no one to give them a Christian burial."

      One of the most devastating aspects of the Black Plague was fear of helping the sick. Even touching the clothing of someone who was ill could be fatal. Families deserted their own fathers, mothers, and even children. Abandoned plague victims lay dying in droves in the streets. Families who stayed with loved ones often paid the price, forced by towns people to be sealed up in their houses, healthy and sick alike, amounting to a death sentence for all. Many eyewitness accounts tell of hundreds of people dying each day, buried in mass graves. Corpses and the stench of death were everywhere. People believed the very smell might spread the disease and took to walking with handkerchiefs full of herbs or oils held to the nose. In winter when fleas were dormant the plague would let up, but in spring it would resume spreading, claiming lives once again. The Black Plague endured in some capacity for well into the 1600's.

      The child's nursery rhyme Ring Around The Rosie is often cited as referring to the Black Plague, however this is thought to be an urban legend as the earliest record of it appearing in print wasn't until 1881.

      Ring around the rosie
      Pocketful of posies
      Ashes, ashes (or Achoo, achoo)
      We all fall down.

      The first line was thought to describe an early symptom of a ringed rash or skin discoloration. The second, the flowers or herbs people would keep handy to ward off the stench of death. The third was said to refer to the sound of sneezing, an initial symptom of getting sick, and the last line a reference to falling down dead.


    Who do I go see about my mother's drinking?
    Like anyone, my mother likes a drink but she takes it too far - she can't handle her drink at all and it's not in a good way! Years ago she drank every weekend and one Saturday night she called up her parents and claimed that they don't appreciate her so this brought awareness to her drinking. She stopped and everything was going great, recently though I feel it's happening again. In early 2012, my mother and father were invited out to the local pub/bar my mother got VERY shitfaced and attacked a girl for introducing herself to my father, she claims this girl was trying it on with dad. Dad says it's not true and she introduced herself as she knew others in their circle of friends and didn't want to seem rude by ignoring my father, it sounds perfectly reasonable to me. My mother and father have a series of arguments mostly when mother is drunk and she has thrown things and slammed things and we've even had a family intervention when I told her she had ruined my brother's and my saturday night, she started throwing stuff at me but then apologised and we all talked about the problem. It seems like it's fallen on deaf ears, I feel sorry for my dad for having to put up with this shit, I am 22 and live at home as I'm saving to move abroad soon, and I honestly can't wait to move away and be away from her but then I don't want to leave my dad or my little brother to deal with this shit either. I am sick to death of having some of my weekends ruined because she can't stop at 1 or 2 glasses she has to have the whole freaking bottle. We are all at our wits end and last time we had a family intervention, I told her if she got into that state again I will go and see someone about it. I haven't and it has happened again, the thing is I don't know where to start, do I see my regular doctor? Of course I know he wouldn't be able to discuss her medical issues with me due to confidentiality also she has diabetes and high blood pressure, my mother is not an alcoholic, she does not drink 24/7 everyday she does not depend on it but she can bloody polish off a good bottle or 2. But in all honesty she may be drinking herself into an early grave, and this may sound nasty but I want something to happen, so she can have a good and clear wake up call, we had hoped when she attacked the girl it was enough, obviously not. My father is not a crying type of man, but I've seen how upset he gets and it's horrible seeing a man who holds it together so well crumble like that, I've even told him to to threaten to leave her with us, that's how bad I feel it's gotten! We all hate her when she's drunk, we have no patience with her, and we've all told her that she is a nasty horrible drunk. Still no signs of stopping though. Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Your description of your mother's behavior suggest that she is at the beginning stages of alcoholism, Rhianna. Alcoholism is a progressive disease. You need to understand what your mother feels. Her urge to drink is as strong as the urge that you and I feel when we have to go to the toilet badly. It is an overwhelming, persistent, and ceaseless urge.

      Alcoholism has psychological, physiological, social, and family aspects. Unfortunately, an alcoholic will only engage in treatment IF and WHEN SHE feels that things are so bad for HER that they can not possibly get worse. This is called hitting bottom. Your mother has to hit bottom and CHOOSE treatment. Nothing you do will expedite that decision. Trying to talk an alcoholic out of drinking will have the same level of success as trying to talk a cancer patient out of her cancer. Alcoholism is as much of a disease as cancer.

      The first symptom of alcoholism is always denial: “I only drink beer”, “I only drink on weekends”, “I can still handle my job”, “I never drink during the day. I only drink at night.” The excuses go on and on. Alcoholics restructure reality so that they actually believe they don’t have a problem. Everyone else around them has the problem in their mind.

      Alcohol acts as a tranquilizer, an antidepressant, or as a pacifier depending on the individual. Scientists are discovering that genetic factors interact with environmental factors to induce alcoholism. However, they still don’t understand all the plethora of genetic factors. Scientists discovered that alcohol affects the pleasure centers in the brain differently than it does people who are not alcoholics.

      To answer your question, you need to take care of yourself. You see the people at Al-ANON. There are meetings all over the world. You will meet people who have been where you are now. They can provide both emotional support to you and tell you how they coped with the situation you're now in.

      Best of luck,
      Sean Roberts

    what can cause red glazy eyes?
    my eyes feel like they do when you smoke a spliff but honestly i haven't what could be the cause?

    • ANSWER:
      Glassy eyes causes, usually, happen to be other medical conditions. However, leaving aside these, there is are some non-medical factors as well. This is about the habit of not blinking the eyes too often, in some people. Due to this, what happens is, eyes tend to become dry and kind of lifeless and show the symptoms, which I have cited above. It is also common among heavy drinkers to have glassy eyes types of an ailment. But, the symptoms disappear, once they are sober again. Now comes the point where I would let you know about the medical factors which tend to become the glassy eyes causes. One common condition is Graves' disease. Also, viral infections such as conjunctivitis i.e. pink eye causes more tearing in the eyes, which eventually may render the eyes to take a glassy appearance. People with shingles or chickenpox are also the ones who suffer from this condition.

      Glassy eyes causes may also be related to the development of a condition known as hypoglycemia, which, apart from causing other sets of symptoms, may also manifest in the form of this condition, we are talking about. Not only medical conditions may get the eyes to become shiny or glassy, but also certain medications can do the same. These medications are the ones which have a tendency to depress the central nervous system. This in turn, keeps the person from blinking too often, which is, as mentioned earlier, happens to be a cause of this illness.

    hi just got blood results back &i have an underactive thyroid gland,it runs in my family,but i dont want to?
    take thyroxine,can anyone tell me anything about this condition,im just hearing negative things like [ aw you ll put on loads of weight,and you ll have to take tablets for the rest of your life ,im 39 dont smoke dont drink,am pretty active and watch what i eat, can anyone shed some light on alternative treatments or anything about this.

    • ANSWER:
      Understanding Thyroid Problems - the Basics
      What Are Thyroid Problems?
      Through the hormones it produces, the thyroid gland influences almost all of the metabolic processes in your body. Thyroid disorders can range from a small, harmless goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most common thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much of these vital body chemicals results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone production leads to hypothyroidism.

      Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.

      7 Causes of Fatigue in Women

      WebMD Feature

      We are in the midst of a global energy crisis but it has nothing to do with oil. The problem is unexplained fatigue.

      "The single biggest complaint I hear from my patients, day in and day out, is fatigue," says cardiologist Nieca Goldberg, MD, Director of the NYU Medical Center Women's Heart Program and associate professor at the NYU School of Medicine.

      If you are getting a healthy 7 to 8 hours a night and you're still tired, Goldberg says it's time for a check–up to uncover the causes for fatigue.

      Read more about 7 causes of fatigue in women

      Related to hypothyroidism symptoms, thyroid tests, TSH, medication, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, goiter, Underactive thyroid, synthroid, hyperthyroid, depression, thyroid surgery, thyroid disorders
      © 2008 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.
      What Causes Thyroid Problems?
      All types of hyperthyroidism are due to an overproduction of thyroid hormones, but the condition can occur in several ways:

      Graves' disease: The production of too much thyroid hormone.
      Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, upsetting the body's chemical balance; some goiters may contain several of these nodules.
      Subacute thyroiditis: inflammation of the thyroid causes the gland to "leak" excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that generally lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.
      Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland: Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes.
      Hypothyroidism, by contrast, stems from an underproduction of thyroid hormones. Since your body's energy production requires certain amounts of thyroid hormones, a drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels. Causes of hypothyroidism include these:

      Hashimoto's thyroiditis: In this autoimmune disorder, the body attacks thyroid tissue. The tissue eventually dies and stops producing hormones.
      Removal of the thyroid gland: The thyroid may be surgically removed or chemically destroyed as treatment for hyperthyroidism.
      Exposure to excessive amounts of iodide: Cold and sinus medicines, the heart medicine amiodarone, or certain contrast dyes given before some X-rays may expose you to too much iodine. You may be at greater risk for developing hypothyroidism, especially if you have had thyroid problems in the past.
      Lithium: This drug has also been linked as a cause of hypothyroidism.
      Untreated for long periods of time, hypothyroidism can bring on a myxedema coma, a rare but potentially fatal condition that requires immediate hormone injections.

      Hypothyroidism poses a special danger to newborns and infants. A lack of thyroid hormones in the system at an early age can lead to the development of cretinism (mental retardation) and dwarfism (stunted growth). Most infants now have their thyroid levels checked routinely soon after birth. If they are hypothyroid, treatment begins immediately. In infants, as in adults, hypothyroidism can be due to these causes:

      A pituitary disorder
      A defective thyroid
      Lack of the gland entirely
      A hypothyroid infant is unusually inactive and quiet, has a poor appetite and sleeps for excessively long periods of time.

      Cancer of the thyroid gland is quite rare and occurs in less than 10% of thyroid nodules. You might have one or more thyroid nodules for several years before they are determined to be cancerous. People who have received radiation treatment to the head and neck earlier in life, possibly as a remedy for acne, tend to have a higher-than-normal propensity for thyroid cancer.

    Is there any physical disease with such symptoms? or its all psychiatric?
    1- heart skipping and weird rythm disorders.
    2- Anxiety
    3- Depression
    4- low attention
    5- I talk bullshit all the times. Without even thinking!
    6- Becoming a weird person
    7- My voice is lower and a bit different

    i.e: Is it all brain chemical ? or could be some serious issue in some part of the body

    • ANSWER:
      A deeping voice is the key to finding what the problem is as the other symptoms can be from thousands of conditions, a voice change far less. A common cause is a thyroid imbalance and your other symptoms are listed under this condition but of course this is just one of the reasons listed on the links. As a thyroid imbalance can be misdiagnosed, the tests to request are - TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone 0.3 - 3.0mU/L but over 2.0mU/l is found to be in the early stages of hypothyroidism), Free T3 and Free T4 (upper end of normal is optimal) and thyroid antibodies - TPO and TgAb (above normal is antibodies attacking the thyroid - Graves Disease - autoimmune hyperthyroidism or Hashimoto's Thyroiditis - autoimmune hypothyroidism).

      Causes of voice changes>>>

    Could you tell me what could cause these symtons in a 36?
    year old man... He gets clammy..starts to shake ...his legs get stiff and he can't walk..sometimes he falls..after this passes his legs are weak and tired as if he has run 10 miles.. sometimes his speach is slurred..it's not Parkinsons or a stroke..

    • ANSWER:
      Have the Dr. do a blood test to check his potassium levels and also thyroid check.
      My husband went through some of the same symptoms sometimes getting so bad he would be completely paralyzed.He was in his early 20's when he had problems.
      It took us over 6 years to get a diagnosis. We finally saw an edocrinologist who diagnosed him with Graves Disease (a severe form of hyper thyroid) and also Hypokalemia (chronic low potassium)
      Good Luck!

    Question for anyone with Graves Disease: Will the symptom of the bulging eyes go away if the disease goes into

    • ANSWER:
      Initially, the bulging eyes are caused by muscles contracting at the back of the eye sockets. Later, on , this becomes permanent. So it comes down to this. How rapidly was the diagnosis made, and treated? If it was caught early, then yes, the exophthalmos will subside.

    graves disease?
    my brother was recently diagnosed with graves disease. he is 21 years old. i need to know if there is any foods he shouldn't have if so what are they. we want him on the least medications as possible because we believe in natural remedies.

    • ANSWER:
      Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, "orange-peel" skin, and hyperthyroidism. It is caused by an antibody-mediated auto-immune reaction, but the trigger for this reaction is still unknown. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the world, and the most common cause of general thyroid enlargement in developed countries.

      In some parts of Europe the term Basedow’s disease or Graves-Basedow disease is preferred to Graves' disease.


      Graves disease owes its name to the Irish doctor Robert James Graves, who described a case of goiter with exophthalmos in 1835. However, the German Karl Adolph von Basedow independently reported the same constellation of symptoms in 1840. As a result, on the European Continent the term Basedow's disease is more common than Graves' disease.[1][2][3]

      Several earlier reports exist but were not widely circulated. For example, cases of goiter with exophthalmos were published by the Italians Giuseppe Flajani and Antonio Giuseppe Testa, in 1802 and 1810 respectively.[4] Prior to these, Caleb Hillier Parry, a notable provincial physician in England of the late 18th-century (and a friend of Edward Jenner),[5] described a case in 1786. This case was not published until 1825, but still ten years ahead of Graves[6]

      However, fair credit for the first description of Graves disease goes to the 12th-century Persian physician Sayyid Ismail Al-Jurjani, who noted the association of goiter and exophthalmos in his Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm, the major medical dictionary of its time.[7]

      [edit] Diagnosis

      Graves' disease may present clinically with one of the following characteristic signs:

      * goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland, sometimes detectable as a swelling in the neck)
      * exophthalmos (protuberance of one or both eyes)
      * a non-pitting edema with thickening of the skin, described as "peau d'orange" or "orange peel", usually found on the lower extremities
      * fatigue, weight loss with increased appetite, and other symptoms of hyperthyroidism

      The two signs that are truly diagnostic of Graves' disease (i.e. not seen in other hyperthyroid conditions) are exophthalmos and nonpitting edema. Goiter, which is caused by an enlarged thyroid gland, can be present with other forms of hyperthyroidism, although Graves' disease is the most common cause. A large goiter is visible to the naked eye, but a smaller goiter may not be clinically detectable, though X-rays or ultrasound can assist in detecting it.

      Another sign of Graves' disease is hyperthyroidism, i.e. over-production of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Although, hypothyroidism has also been associated and may be the causating factor in some patients. Hyperthyroidism can be confirmed by measuring elevated blood levels levels of free (unbound) T3 and T4. Other useful laboratory measurements include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, low in Graves' disease due to negative feedback from the elevated T3 and T4), and protein-bound iodine (elevated). Thyroid-stimulating antibodies may also be detected serologically.

      Definitive diagnosis requires a biopsy.

      [edit] Other Graves' Disease Symptoms

      Some of the most typical symptoms of Graves' Disease are the following:

      * Palpitations
      * Tachycardia (rapid heart rate: 100-120 beats per minute, or higher)
      * Arrhythmia (irregular heart beat)
      * Raised blood pressure (Hypertension)
      * Tremor (usually fine shaking eg. hands)
      * Excessive sweating
      * Heat intolerance
      * Increased appetite
      * Unexplained weight loss despite increased appetite
      * Shortness of breath
      * Muscle weakness (especially in the large muscles of the arms and legs) and degeneration
      * Diminished/Changed sex drive
      * Insomnia (inability to get enough sleep)
      * Increased energy
      * Fatigue
      * Mental impairment, memory lapses, diminished attention span
      * Decreased concentration
      * Nervousness, agitation
      * Irritability
      * Restlessness
      * Erratic behavior
      * Emotional lability
      * Brittle nails
      * Abnormal breast enlargement (men)
      * Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)
      * Protruding eyeballs (Graves' disease only
      * Double vision
      * Eye pain, irritation, or the feeling of grit or sand in the eyes
      * Swelling or redness of eyes or eyelids/eyelid retraction
      * Sensitivity to light
      * Decrease in menstrual periods (oligomenorrhea), Irregular and scant menstrual flow (Amenorrhea)
      * Difficulty conceiving/infertility/recurrent miscarriage
      * Hair loss
      * Itchy skin, hives
      * Chronic sinus infections
      * Lumpy, reddish skin of the lower legs (pretibial myxedema)
      * Smooth, velvety skin
      * Increased bowel movements or Diarrhea

      [edit] Incidence and epidemiology

      The disease occurs most frequently in women (7:1 compared to men). It occurs most often in middle age (most commonly in the third to fifth decades of life), but is not uncommon in adolescents, during pregnancy, at the time of menopause and in people over age 50. There is a marked family preponderance, which has led to speculation that there may be a genetic component. To date, no clear genetic defect has been found that would point at a monogenic cause. Tissue behind the eye can become swollen or fibrous, causing the characteristic symptom of bulging eyes.

      [edit] Pathophysiology

      Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder, in which the body produces antibodies to the receptor for Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). (Antibodies to thyroglobulin and to the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 may also be produced.) This is an example of a type II hypersensitivity.

      These antibodies cause hyperthyroidism because they bind to the TSH receptor and chronically stimulate it. The TSH receptor is expressed on the follicular cells of the thyroid gland (the cells that produce thyroid hormone), and the result of chronic stimulation is an abnormally high production of T3 and T4. This in turn causes the clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and the enlargement of the thyroid gland visible as goiter.

      The infiltrative exophthalmos that is frequently encountered has been explained by postulating that the thyroid gland and the extraocular muscles share a common antigen which is recognized by the antibodies. Antibodies binding to the extraocular muscles would cause swelling behind the eyeball.

      The "orange peel" skin has been explained by the infiltration of antibodies under the skin, causing an inflammatory reaction and subsequent fibrous plaques.

      There are 3 types of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor currently recognized:

      * TSI, Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins: these antibodies (mainly IgG) act as LATS (Long Acting Thyroid Stimulants), activating the cells in a longer and slower way than TSH, leading to an elevated production of thyroid hormone.

      * TGI, Thyroid growth immunoglobulins: these antibodies bind directly to the TSH receptor and have been implicated in the growth of thyroid follicles.

      * TBII, Thyroid Bind Inhibiting Inmunoglobulins: these antibodies inhibit the normal union of TSH with its receptor. By doing this, several other antibodies that normally would inhibit TSH function will actually act as if TSH itself was binding to its receptor, thus inducing thyroid function.

      [edit] Etiology

      The trigger for auto-antibody production is not known. There appears to be a genetic predisposition for Graves' disease, suggesting that some people are more prone than others to develop TSH receptor activating antibodies due to a genetic cause. HLA DR (especially DR3) appears to play a significant role.[8]

      Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears suddenly, often quite late in life, it is thought that a viral or bacterial infection may trigger antibodies which cross-react with the human TSH receptor (a phenomenon known as antigenic mimicry, also seen in some cases of type I diabetes).

      One possible culprit is the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica (a cousin of Yersinia pestis, the agent of bubonic plague). However, although there is indirect evidence for the structural similarity between the bacteria and the human thyrotropin receptor, direct causative evidence is limited.[8] Yersinia seems not to be a major cause of this disease, although it may contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity arising for other reasons in genetically susceptible individuals.[9] It has also been suggested that Y. enterocolitica infection is not the cause of auto-immune thyroid disease, but rather is only an associated condition; with both having a shared inherited susceptibility.[10] More recently the role for Y. enterocolitica has been disputed.[11]

      The ocular manifestations of Graves disease are more common in smokers and tend to worsen (or develop for the first time) following radioiodine treatment of the thyroid condition. Thus, they are not caused by hyperthyroidism per se; this common misperception may result from the fact that hyperthyroidism from other causes may cause eyelid retraction or eyelid lag (so-called hyperthyroid stare) which can be confused with the general appearance of proptosis/exophthalmos, despite the fact that the globes do not actually protrude in other causes of hyperthyroidism. Also, both conditions (globe protrusion and hyperthyroid lid retraction) may exist at the same time in the hyperthyroid patient with Graves disease.

      [edit] Treatment

      Medical treatment of Graves' disease includes antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and thyroidectomy (surgical excision of the gland).

      Treatment of the hyperthyroidism of Graves-Basedow disease may be with medications such as methimazole or propylthiouracil (PTU), which reduce the production of thyroid hormone, or with radioactive iodine. Surgical removal of the thyroid is another option, but still requires preoperative treatment with methimazole or PTU. This is done to render the patient "euthyroid" (i.e. normothyroid) before the surgery since operating on a frankly hyperthyroid patient is dangerous. Therapy with radioactive iodine (I-131) is the most common treatment in the United States and in many other parts of the world. Thyroid blocking drugs and/or surgical thyroid removal is used more often than radioactive iodine as definitive treatment in Japan, perhaps because of general fear of radioactivity among many Japanese.

      The development of radioactive iodine (I-131) in the early 1940s at the Mallinckrodt General Clinical Research Center and its widespread adoption as treatment for Graves' Disease has led to a progressive reduction in the use of surgical thyroidectomy for this problem. In general, RAI therapy is effective, less expensive, and avoids the small but definite risks of surgery. Treatment with antithyroid medications must be given for six months to two years, in order to be effective. Even then, upon cessation of the drugs, the hyperthyroid state may recur. Side effects of the antithyroid medications include a potentially fatal reduction in the level of white blood cells.

      [edit] Antithyroid drugs

      The main antithyroid drugs are methimazole (US), carbimazole (UK) and propylthiouracil (PTU). These drugs block the binding of iodine and coupling of iodotyrosines. The most dangerous side-effect is agranulocytosis (1/250, more in PTU); this is an idiosyncratic reaction which does not stop on cessation of drug). Others include granulocytopenia (dose dependent, which improves on cessation of the drug) and aplastic anemia. Patients on these medications should see a doctor if they develop sore throat or fever. The most common side effects are rash and peripheral neuritis. These drugs also cross the placenta and are secreted in breast milk.

      [edit] Radioiodine

      This modality is suitable for most patients, although some prefer to use it mainly for older patients. Indications for radioiodine are: failed medical therapy or surgery and where medical or surgical therapy are contraindicated.

      Contraindications to RAI are pregnancy (absolute), ophthalmopathy (relative- it can aggravate thyroid eye disease), solitary nodules. Disadvantages of this treatment are a high incidence of hypothyroidism (up to 80%) requiring hormone supplementation. It acts slowly and has a relapse rate that depends on the dose administered.

      [edit] Surgery

      This modality is suitable for young patients and pregnant patients. Indications are: a large goiter (especially when compressing the trachea), suspicious nodules or suspected cancer (to pathologically examine the thyroid) and patients with ophthalmopathy.

      Both bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy and the Hartley-Dunhill procedure (hemithyroidectomy on 1 side and partial lobectomy on other side) are possible.

      Advantages are: immediate cure and potential removal of carcinoma. Its risks are injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, hypoparathyroidism (due to removal of the parathyroid glands), hematoma (which can be life-threatening if it compresses the trachea) and scarring.

      [edit] Eye disease

      Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) is one of the most typical symptom of Graves' Disease- also called "Graves' ophthalmopathy". Thyroid eye disease is an inflammatory condition which affects the orbital contents including the extraocular muscles and orbital fat. It is almost always associated with Graves' disease (GD) but may rarely be seen in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, primary hypothyroidism, or thyroid cancer. The ocular manifestations of TED include soft tissue inflammation, eyelid retraction, proptosis, corneal exposure, and optic nerve compression. The signs and symptoms of the disease are characteristic. These include lid retraction, lid lag, and a delay in the downward excursion of the upper eyelid in down gaze that is specific to TED.

      * For mild disease - artificial tears, steroid eyedrops, oral steroids (to reduce chemosis)
      * For moderate disease - lateral tarsorrhaphy
      * For severe disease - orbital decompression or retro-orbital radiation

      [edit] No treatment

      If left untreated, more serious complications could result, including birth defects in pregnancy, increased risk of a miscarriage, and in extreme cases, death. Graves-Basedow disease is often accompanied by an increase in heart rate, which may lead to further heart complications. If the eyes are proptotic (bulging) severely enough that the lids do not close completely at night, severe dryness will occur with a very high risk of a secondary corneal infection which could lead to blindness. Pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can lead to visual field defects and vision loss as well.

    does thyroid disease have any affect on hcg production when pregnant?
    i know that during the first trimester, your hcg levels lower your tsh (thyroid) levels...but i am wondering if the fact that i have thyroid disease will cause a slower production of hcg (pregnancy hormone). where it may not be detectable until later than 5 weeks. i've used hpt's and had a blood test done at what would be 5 weeks...a few days later i got a very very very faint positive line on an hpt...but it was definately blue. i would be 6 weeks now and i am only hanging onto this because i have EVERY possible pregnancy symptom and had spotting (not at all like a period, as it had more clear mucus in it than anything and was very pale pink/tan in color). i also have very viseable blue veins for the past week all over my chest and breasts/nipples, and on the rest of my body (thighs especially...they are much more viseable than usual). i know my body and i just feel pregnant as i already have two children and know what pregnancy feels like~just cannot explain the hcg levels.

    • ANSWER:
      I have Graves' Disease (overactive thyroid) and I took the test 5 days before my period was due and it came back positive.

      What made me take the test was that I had implantation bleeding (didn't have it with my first) so the day after the bleeding stopped I took the pregnancy test and it was a faint line as well.

      I am now into my tenth week.

      I can't explain the HCG levels either, except all I know, with both pregnancies my results came back early.

      Like you, I had the exact same symptoms.

      My first pregnancy seemed to help correct and ease my thyroid condition, to the point where after my daughter was born they slowly decreased my neo-mercazole and beta blocker and for the last 12 months I have been on no medication at all.

      However, I am aware that my remission may only be intermitent.

      I think with the thyroid disorders we are all so different, so while my HCG may be strong from the start, your HCG level may not be as strong and may just become stronger as the weeks progress.

      Congrats on your pregnancy and I hope all goes well for you.

      Only other women with this disease can truly understand what we go through, not just with pregnancy, but with the day to day challenges that we are faced with thyroid disorders.

      I am on email through yahoo, so feel free to email me anytime.

      Hope this helps.

    what are some health problems associated with smoking?

    • ANSWER:
      Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (gum disease)
      Muscle injuries

      Angina (20 x risk)
      Neck pain

      Back pain
      Nystagmus (abnormal eye movements)

      Buerger’s Disease (severe circulatory disease)
      Ocular Histoplasmosis (fungal eye infection)

      Duodenal ulcer
      Osteoporosis (in both sexes)

      Cataract (2 x risk)

      Cataract, posterior subcapsular (3 x risk)
      Penis (Erectile dysfunction)

      Colon Polyps
      Peripheral vascular disease

      Crohn’s Disease (chronic inflamed bowel)

      Psoriasis (2 x risk)

      Diabetes (Type 2, non-insulin dependent)
      Skin wrinkling (2 x risk)

      Hearing loss
      Stomach ulcer

      Rheumatoid arthritis (for heavy smokers) [6]

      Impotence (2 x risk)
      Tendon injuries

      Optic Neuropathy (loss of vision, 16 x risk)
      Tobacco Amblyopia (loss of vision)

      Ligament injuries
      Tooth loss

      Macular degeneration (eyes, 2 x risk)

      Function impaired in smokers

      Ejaculation (volume reduced)
      Sperm count reduced

      Fertility (30% lower in women)
      Sperm motility impaired

      Immune System (impaired)
      Sperm less able to penetrate the ovum

      Menopause (onset 1.74 years early on average)
      Sperm shape abnormalities increased

      Symptoms worse in smokers

      Graves’ disease (over-active thyroid gland)

      Chronic rhinitis (chronic inflammation of the nose)
      Multiple Sclerosis

      Diabetic retinopathy (eyes)
      Optic Neuritis (eyes)

      Disease more severe or persistent in smokers

      Common cold

      Crohn’s Disease (chronic inflamed bowel)


      Deaths caused by smoking

      One in two long-term smokers will die prematurely as a result of smoking – half of these in middle age. The most recent estimates show that around 114,000 people in the UK are killed by smoking every year, accounting for one fifth of all UK deaths. [7] Most die from one of the three main diseases associated with cigarette smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease (bronchitis and emphysema) and coronary heart disease. The table below shows the percentage and numbers of deaths attributable to smoking, based on the latest available detailed breakdown (2002 data).

    I want to START smoking cigarettes?
    Im 21 and i tried the other day a cigarette. It felt really good, i enjoy it really much. I will start smoking tomorrow but i will not smoke more than 3 cigarettes at day, that way i will always feel the relaxing buzz it gives. About those sidefects well i have seen many of people living long and great lifes and they smoke, including my father who is 86 and has smoked for 67 years, he is very happy and has never suffered nothing. I know about lots of people who died early and never smoked and even exercised daily, so to me is destiny and smoking is great, people are just hysterical. Anyone agrees with me?

    • ANSWER:
      Illness caused by smoking

      Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, causing many diseases, and reduces quality of life and life expectancy. It has been estimated that, in England, 364,000 patients are admitted to NHS hospitals each year due to diseases caused by smoking. This translates into 7,000 hospital admissions per week, or 1,000 day. [1] For every death caused by smoking, approximately 20 smokers are suffering from a smoking related disease. [2] In 1997/98, cigarette smoking caused an estimated 480,000 patients to consult their GP for heart disease, 20,000 for stroke and nearly 600,000 for COPD. 1
      Half of all teenagers who are currently smoking will die from diseases caused by tobacco if they continue to smoke. One quarter will die after 70 years of age and one quarter before, with those dying before 70 losing on average 21 years of life. [3] It is estimated that between 1950 and 2000 six million Britons, 60 million people worldwide, died from tobacco-related diseases. [4]

      Non-lethal illness
      Smokers face a higher risk than non-smokers for a wide variety of illnesses, many of which may be fatal (see “Deaths caused by smoking” below). However, many medical conditions associated with smoking, while they may not be fatal, may cause years of debilitating illness or other problems. These include: [5]

      Increased risk for smokers

      1)Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (gum disease)
      2)Muscle injuries
      3)Angina (20 x risk)
      4)Neck pain
      5)Back pain
      6)Nystagmus (abnormal eye movements)
      7)Buerger’s Disease (severe circulatory disease)
      8)Ocular Histoplasmosis (fungal eye infection)
      9)Duodenal ulcer
      10)Osteoporosis (in both sexes)
      11)Cataract (2 x risk)
      13)Cataract, posterior subcapsular (3 x risk)
      14)Penis (Erectile dysfunction)
      15)Colon Polyps
      16)Peripheral vascular disease
      17)Crohn’s Disease (chronic inflamed bowel)
      20)Psoriasis (2 x risk)
      21)Diabetes (Type 2, non-insulin dependent)
      22)Skin wrinkling (2 x risk)
      23)Hearing loss
      24)Stomach ulcer
      26)Rheumatoid arthritis (for heavy smokers)
      27)mpotence (2 x risk)
      28)Tendon injuries
      29)Optic Neuropathy (loss of vision, 16 x risk)
      30)Tobacco Amblyopia (loss of vision)
      31)Ligament injuries
      32)Tooth loss
      33)Macular degeneration (eyes, 2 x risk)
      35)General functions impaired in smokers
      36)Ejaculation (volume reduced)
      37)Sperm count reduced
      38)Fertility (30% lower in women)
      39)Sperm motility impaired
      40)Immune System (impaired)
      41)Sperm less able to penetrate the ovum
      42)Menopause (onset 1.74 years early on average)
      43)Sperm shape abnormalities increased

      Symptoms worse in smokers
      2)Graves’ disease (over-active thyroid gland)
      3)Chronic rhinitis (chronic inflammation of the nose)
      4)Multiple Sclerosis
      5)Diabetic retinopathy (eyes)
      6)Optic Neuritis (eyes)

      Disease more severe or persistent in smokers
      1)Common cold
      3)Crohn’s Disease (chronic inflamed bowel)

      Deaths caused by smoking

      One in two long-term smokers will die prematurely as a result of smoking – half of these in middle age. The most recent estimates show that around 114,000 people in the UK are killed by smoking every year, accounting for one fifth of all UK deaths. [7] Most die from one of the three main diseases associated with cigarette smoking: lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung disease (bronchitis and emphysema) and coronary heart disease. The table below shows the percentage and numbers of deaths attributable to smoking, based on the latest available detailed breakdown (2002 data).
      Deaths caused by smoking are five times higher than the 22,833 deaths arising from: traffic accidents (3,439); poisoning and overdose (881); alcoholic liver disease (5,121); other accidental deaths (8,579); murder and manslaughter (513); suicide (4,066); and HIV infection (234) in the UK during 2002. 8 World-wide, almost 5 million die prematurely each year as a result of smoking. Based on current trends, this will rise to 10 million within 20 years.

      Still Interested? If yes is your answer, Only God Can Save You!!!
      You are a matured young person and have the right to decide for youself.If the statistics above dont appeal to you, nothing would !
      Hope that good sense prevails.Remember, your father may be one of the lucky few.This need not be the case with you.
      All the best.

    Do you know anything about Myasthenia gravis ?

    • ANSWER:
      Accessible Version | Skip Menus
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      Table of Contents (click to jump to sections)

      What is myasthenia gravis?
      What causes myasthenia gravis?
      What is the role of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis?
      What are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?
      Who gets myasthenia gravis?
      How is myasthenia gravis diagnosed?
      How is myasthenia gravis treated?
      What are myasthenic crises?
      What is the prognosis?
      What research is being done?
      Where can I get more information?

      What is myasthenia gravis?

      Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body. The name myasthenia gravis, which is Latin and Greek in origin, literally means "grave muscle weakness." With current therapies, however, most cases of myasthenia gravis are not as "grave" as the name implies. In fact, for the majority of individuals with myasthenia gravis, life expectancy is not lessened by the disorder.

      The hallmark of myasthenia gravis is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Certain muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often, but not always, involved in the disorder. The muscles that control breathing and neck and limb movements may also be affected.


      What causes myasthenia gravis?

      Myasthenia gravis is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles. It occurs when normal communication between the nerve and muscle is interrupted at the neuromuscular junction - the place where nerve cells connect with the muscles they control. Normally when impulses travel down the nerve, the nerve endings release a neurotransmitter substance called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine travels through the neuromuscular junction and binds to acetylcholine receptors which are activated and generate a muscle contraction.

      In myasthenia gravis, antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction which prevents the muscle contraction from occurring. These antibodies are produced by the body's own immune system. Thus, myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease because the immune system - which normally protects the body from foreign organisms - mistakenly attacks itself.


      What is the role of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis?

      The thymus gland, which lies in the upper chest area beneath the breastbone, plays an important role in the development of the immune system in early life. Its cells form a part of the body's normal immune system. The gland is somewhat large in infants, grows gradually until puberty, and then gets smaller and is replaced by fat with age. In adults with myasthenia gravis, the thymus gland is abnormal. It contains certain clusters of immune cells indicative of lymphoid hyperplasia - a condition usually found only in the spleen and lymph nodes during an active immune response. Some individuals with myasthenia gravis develop thymomas or tumors of the thymus gland. Generally thymomas are benign, but they can become malignant.

      The relationship between the thymus gland and myasthenia gravis is not yet fully understood. Scientists believe the thymus gland may give incorrect instructions to developing immune cells, ultimately resulting in autoimmunity and the production of the acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thereby setting the stage for the attack on neuromuscular transmission.


      What are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?

      Although myasthenia gravis may affect any voluntary muscle, muscles that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, and swallowing are most frequently affected. The onset of the disorder may be sudden. Symptoms often are not immediately recognized as myasthenia gravis.

      In most cases, the first noticeable symptom is weakness of the eye muscles. In others, difficulty in swallowing and slurred speech may be the first signs. The degree of muscle weakness involved in myasthenia gravis varies greatly among patients, ranging from a localized form, limited to eye muscles (ocular myasthenia), to a severe or generalized form in which many muscles - sometimes including those that control breathing - are affected. Symptoms, which vary in type and severity, may include a drooping of one or both eyelids (ptosis), blurred or double vision (diplopia) due to weakness of the muscles that control eye movements, unstable or waddling gait, weakness in arms, hands, fingers, legs, and neck, a change in facial expression, difficulty in swallowing and shortness of breath, and impaired speech (dysarthria).


      Who gets myasthenia gravis?

      Myasthenia gravis occurs in all ethnic groups and both genders. It most commonly affects young adult women (under 40) and older men (over 60), but it can occur at any age.

      In neonatal myasthenia, the fetus may acquire immune proteins (antibodies) from a mother affected with myasthenia gravis. Generally, cases of neonatal myasthenia gravis are transient (temporary) and the child's symptoms usually disappear within 2-3 months after birth. Other children develop myasthenia gravis indistinguishable from adults. Myasthenia gravis in juveniles is common.

      Myasthenia gravis is not directly inherited nor is it contagious. Occasionally, the disease may occur in more than one member of the same family.

      Rarely, children may show signs of congenital myasthenia or congenital myasthenic syndrome. These are not autoimmune disorders, but are caused by defective genes that produce proteins in the acetylcholine receptor or in acetylcholinesterase.


      How is myasthenia gravis diagnosed?

      Unfortunately, a delay in diagnosis of one or two years is not unusual in cases of myasthenia gravis. Because weakness is a common symptom of many other disorders, the diagnosis is often missed in people who experience mild weakness or in those individuals whose weakness is restricted to only a few muscles.

      The first steps of diagnosing myasthenia gravis include a review of the individual's medical history, and physical and neurological examinations. The signs a physician must look for are impairment of eye movements or muscle weakness without any changes in the individual's ability to feel things. If the doctor suspects myasthenia gravis, several tests are available to confirm the diagnosis.

      A special blood test can detect the presence of immune molecules or acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Most patients with myasthenia gravis have abnormally elevated levels of these antibodies. However, antibodies may not be detected in patients with only ocular forms of the disease.

      Another test is called the edrophonium test. This approach requires the intravenous administration of edrophonium chloride or Tensilon(r), a drug that blocks the degradation (breakdown) of acetylcholine and temporarily increases the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. In people with myasthenia gravis involving the eye muscles, edrophonium chloride will briefly relieve weakness. Other methods to confirm the diagnosis include a version of nerve conduction study which tests for specific muscle "fatigue" by repetitive nerve stimulation. This test records weakening muscle responses when the nerves are repetitively stimulated. Repetitive stimulation of a nerve during a nerve conduction study may demonstrate decrements of the muscle action potential due to impaired nerve-to-muscle transmission.

      A different test called single fiber electromyography (EMG), in which single muscle fibers are stimulated by electrical impulses, can also detect impaired nerve-to-muscle transmission. EMG measures the electrical potential of muscle cells. Muscle fibers in myasthenia gravis, as well as other neuromuscular disorders, do not respond as well to repeated electrical stimulation compared to muscles from normal individuals. Computed tomography (CT) may be used to identify an abnormal thymus gland or the presence of a thymoma.

      A special examination called pulmonary function testing - which measures breathing strength - helps to predict whether respiration may fail and lead to a myasthenic crisis.


      How is myasthenia gravis treated?

      Today, myasthenia gravis can be controlled. There are several therapies available to help reduce and improve muscle weakness. Medications used to treat the disorder include anticholinesterase agents such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine, which help improve neuromuscular transmission and increase muscle strength. Immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine may also be used. These medications improve muscle strength by suppressing the production of abnormal antibodies. They must be used with careful medical followup because they may cause major side effects.

      Thymectomy, the surgical removal of the thymus gland (which often is abnormal in myasthenia gravis patients), reduces symptoms in more than 70 percent of patients without thymoma and may cure some individuals, possibly by re-balancing the immune system. Other therapies used to treat myasthenia gravis include plasmapheresis, a procedure in which abnormal antibodies are removed from the blood, and high-dose intravenous immune globulin, which temporarily modifies the immune system and provides the body with normal antibodies from donated blood. These therapies may be used to help individuals during especially difficult periods of weakness. A neurologist will determine which treatment option is best for each individual depending on the severity of the weakness, which muscles are affected, and the individual's age and other associated medical problems.


      What are myasthenic crises?

      A myasthenic crisis occurs when the muscles that control breathing weaken to the point that ventilation is inadequate, creating a medical emergency and requiring a respirator for assisted ventilation. In patients whose respiratory muscles are weak, crises - which generally call for immediate medical attention - may be triggered by infection, fever, an adverse reaction to medication, or emotional stress.


      What is the prognosis?

      With treatment, the outlook for most patients with myasthenia gravis is bright: they will have significant improvement of their muscle weakness and they can expect to lead normal or nearly normal lives. Some cases of myasthenia gravis may go into remission temporarily and muscle weakness may disappear completely so that medications can be discontinued. Stable, long-lasting complete remissions are the goal of thymectomy. In a few cases, the severe weakness of myasthenia gravis may cause a crisis (respiratory failure), which requires immediate emergency medical care. (see above).


      What research is being done?

      Within the Federal Government, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), one of the Federal Government's National Institutes of Health (NIH), has primary responsibility for conducting and supporting research on myasthenia gravis.

      Much has been learned about myasthenia gravis in recent years. Technological advances have led to more timely and accurate diagnosis, and new and enhanced therapies have improved management of the disorder. Much knowledge has been gained about the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction, the fundamental aspects of the thymus gland and of autoimmunity, and the disorder itself. Despite these advances, however, there is still much to learn. The ultimate goal of myasthenia gravis research is to increase scientific understanding of the disorder. Researchers are seeking to learn what causes the autoimmune response in myasthenia gravis, and to better define the relationship between the thymus gland and myasthenia gravis.

      Today's myasthenia gravis research includes a broad spectrum of studies conducted and supported by NINDS. NINDS scientists are evaluating new and improving current treatments for the disorder. One such study is testing the efficacy of intravenous immune globlin in patients with myasthenia gravis. The goal of the study is to determine whether this treatment safely improves muscle strength. Another study seeks further understanding of the molecular basis of synaptic transmission in the nervous system. The objective of this study is to expand current knowledge of the function of receptors and to apply this knowledge to the treatment of myasthenia gravis.


      Where can I get more information?

      For more information on neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute's Brain Resources and Information Network (BRAIN) at:

      P.O. Box 5801
      Bethesda, MD 20824
      (800) 352-9424

      Information also is available from the following organizations:

      Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, Inc.
      1821 University Ave W.
      Suite S256
      St. Paul, MN 55104-2897
      Tel: 800-541-5454 651-917-6256
      Fax: 651-917-1835

      Muscular Dystrophy Association
      3300 East Sunrise Drive
      Tucson, AZ 85718-3208
      Tel: 520-529-2000 800-344-4863
      Fax: 520-529-5300


      "Myasthenia Gravis Fact Sheet," NINDS.
      NIH Publication No. 99-768

      Back to Myasthenia Gravis Information Page

      Prepared by:
      Office of Communications and Public Liaison
      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
      National Institutes of Health
      Bethesda, MD 20892

      NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient's medical history.

      All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated.

      Last updated July 14, 2006


      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
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    What were the circumstances of Poe's death?

    • ANSWER:
      On October 3, 1849, Poe was found on the streets of Baltimore, delirious and "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance," according to the man who found him. He was taken to the Washington College Hospital, where he died early on the morning of October 7. Poe was never coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition, and, oddly, was wearing clothes that were not his own. Poe is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death, though no one has ever been able to identify the person to whom he referred. One Poe scholar, W. T. Bandy, has suggested that he may instead have called for "Herring," (Poe's uncle was called Henry Herring). Some sources say Poe's final words were " Lord help my poor soul."

      The precise cause of Poe's death is disputed. Dr. J. E. Snodgrass, an acquaintance of Poe who was among those who saw him in his last days, was convinced that Poe died as a result of alcoholism and did a great deal to popularize this interpretation of the events. He was, however, a supporter of the temperance movement who found Poe a useful example in his work; later scholars have shown that his account of Poe's death distorts facts to support his theory. Dr. John Moran, the physician who attended Poe, stated in his own 1885 account that "Edgar Allan Poe did not die under the effect of any intoxicant, nor was the smell of liquor upon his breath or person." This was, however, only one of several sometimes contradictory accounts of Poe's last days he published over the years, so his testimony cannot be considered entirely reliable.

      Numerous other theories have been proposed over the years, including several forms of rare brain disease, diabetes, various types of enzyme deficiency, syphilis, the idea that Poe was shanghaied, drugged, and used as a pawn in a ballot-box-stuffing scam during the election that was held on the day he was found, and, more recently, rabies. The rabies death theory was proposed by Dr. R. Michael Benitez, and is based upon the fact that Poe's symptoms before death are similar to those displayed in a classic case of rabies.[2] Cats play a prominent part in many of his stories. It is conjectured that he was accidentally bitten by a rabid pet.

      In the absence of contemporary documentation (all surviving accounts are either incomplete or published years after the event; even Poe's death certificate, if one was ever made out, has been lost), it is likely that the cause of Poe's death will never be known.

      Poe is buried on the grounds of Westminster Hall and Burying Ground[3], now part of the University of Maryland School of Law[4] in Baltimore.

      Even after death Poe has created controversy and mystery. Because of his fame, school children collected money for a new burial spot closer to the front gate. He was reburied on October 1, 1875. A celebration was held at the dedication of the new tomb on November 17. Likely unknown to the reburial crew, however, the headstones on all the graves, previously facing to the east, were turned to face the West Gate in 1864.[1] Therefore, as it was described in a seemingly fitting turn of events:

      In digging on what they erroneously thought to be the right of the General Poe the committee naturally first struck old Mrs. Poe who had been buried thirty-six years before Edgar's mother-in-law; they tried again and presumably struck Mrs. Clemm who had been buried in 1876 only four years earlier. Henry's Poe's brother foot stone, it there, was respected for they obviously skipped over him and settled for the next body, which was on the Mosher lot. Because of the excellent condition of the teeth, he would certainly seem to have been the remains of Philip Mosher Jr, of the Maryland Militia, age 19.

      Poe's grave site has become a popular tourist attraction. Beginning in 1949, the grave has been visited every year in the early hours of Poe's birthday, January 19th, by a mystery man known endearingly as the Poe Toaster. It has been reported that a man draped in black with a silver-tipped cane, kneels at the grave for a toast of Martel Cognac and leaves the half-full bottle and three red roses. The three red roses supposedly are in memory of Poe himself, his mother-in-law, and his wife Virginia.

    Graves' Eye Disease - treatment?
    After taking PTU to treat Graves Disease (GD) for a year, I now have the early stages of Graves' Eye Disease and I am scheduled for a thyroidectomy.

    Does anyone have treatment suggestions? RAI supposedly can make the eye symptoms even worse (requires use of steroids, sometimes multiple treatments needed, etc). Also, I am hoping to avoid any actual eye surgery. Thyroidectomy seems to be the best option but I was curious. Thanks!
    I met with my opthalmologist and she presented RAI or thyroidectomy as two possible treatments for starters (not necessarily a cure), I am choosing the thyroidectomy.

    thank you for the great feedback!

    If anyone else is interested in treatments and associated response rates, this book is excellent, google books had exerpts from it which were exactly what I was looking for!

    Thyroid Eye Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment By Jonathan J. Dutton, Barrett G. Haik

    • ANSWER:
      You may want to discuss this very thoroughly with your doctor. I have a thyroid issue myself (opposite from yours) and steroid treatments are extremely nasty little treatments (I know I've had them off and on for years).

      Graves Eye Disease is distinguished by 'bulging eyes' or swelling of the tissue around the eyes. I would consider very carefully meeting with not just your endocrinologist but a specialist in eye care for those with Graves.

      Definitely consider a second opinion! I've added some hopefully helpful links in sources for you!

    My boyfriends mom has graves disease?
    Long story short, my boyfriend's mom was just diagnosed with graves disease, He too shows many symptoms of the disease , is there anything I can do to help him out? Special foods they shouldn't eat, things they should eat? What are some signs that the disease is getting worse/ or better? any information would be appreciated, I'm trying to learn as much as I can about it so I can be of better help to him, understand his condition better.
    * He has yet to have been diagnosed, but has been passed from his grandfather to his mother hereditarily, and as I said earlier, he shows 95% of the symptoms rather severely.

    • ANSWER:

    GRAVES DISEASE. HYPER TENSIVE. I have looked for alternative treatment. Do not care of radiation.?
    Anyone know of any alternative routes to treat Hypertensive Graves Disease.

    • ANSWER:
      Contact NORD. They are the national organizations for rare disorders. They have alternative treatments and can also help with paying for the treatment if you cannot.
      Mailing Address:
      National Organization for Rare Disorders
      55 Kenosia Avenue
      PO Box 1968
      Danbury, CT 06813-1968

      Phone Number:
      (203) 744-0100
      Tollfree: (800) 999-6673 (voicemail only)
      TDD Number: (203) 797-9590

      Fax Number:

      E-mail Contact:
      Also, check with your doctor before trying the following.
      Stress reduction and dietary changes are the first steps in any healing plan. Stress reduction methods include biofeedback, meditation, tai chi, yoga and prayer therapy. Stress directly reduces the number of immune system cells which would curb auto-ntibody production, and stress is a well known trigger of autoimmune disease.

      Dietary changes involve an emphasis on goitrogens, foods which naturally block thyroid hormone synthesis and the avoidance of certain foods, particularly those high in iodine content.

      Goitrogens include broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kohlrabi, sweet potatoes, almonds, peaches and peanuts. Soy is also known to interfere with iodine absorption in the gut, reducing thyroid hormone synthesis. Foods to avoid include wheat, dairy products, sugar, saturated fats, caffeine, and artificial sweeteners. An ideal diet would have adequate, but not excess protein, fresh fruit, brown rice, millet and lightly steamed vegetables. It's also important to avoid any food allergens as allergic reactions heighten the autoimmune response.

      Herbs, under the guidance of a herbalist or naturopath, are also known (and approved by the German Commission E) to reduce thyroid hormone synthesis. They are usually prescribed as tonics including one or more of the following ingredients: Lycopus virginicus (bugleweed), Melissa (lemon balm), Leonurus cardica (motherwort) and Lithospermum.

      A number of homeopathic preparations have been successfully used in Graves' disease. Again, they must be used under the guidance of a naturopath. Homeopathic preparations used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism include kelpsan, coffea, pulsatilla, thyroidinum, and natrum muriaticum.

      One of the earliest substances used in the treatment of Graves' disease is strong solution of iodine (Lugol's solution, saturated solution of potassium iodide or SSKI). For years it was the only method available. Although iodine exacerbates symptoms of hyperthyroidism, at extremely high doses it inhibits thyroid hormone production and thyroid hormone's release from the thyroid gland. However, the major effects tend to wane after several weeks and a careful dosage plan must be used. Many naturopaths still use strong iodine and many patients have used and are still using strong iodine successfully, some on an as needed basis.

      Ayurvedic medicine, craniosacral therapy and acupuncture have also been used successfully.
      remeber contact your doctor first about this, because Iam not a doctor.
      P.S. let me know how you are.

    Does anyone have any info on ptosis. My daughter will be six months when she gets her surgery. Any info?

    • ANSWER:
      Ptosis (pronounced TOE-sis) is the medical term for drooping eyelids. A person with ptosis is not able to lift one or both upper eyelids to uncover the eye completely.

      Many people want to correct ptosis because it damages their appearance. In most cases, the sagging upper eyelid results in a loss of the superior (upper) field of vision. In severe cases, ptosis may be present at birth and, if left untreated, can permanently damage vision by forcing the unaffected eye to do all the work while letting the affected eye degenerate.

      What Are The Different Types Of Ptosis?

      Acquired or Levator Dehiscence Ptosis:

      This is the most common type of upper eyelid ptosis. The tendon of the levator muscle may loosen or detach, causing ptosis. This process is similar to a knee ligament sprain or tear. Levator dehiscence occurs primarily in people greater than thirty years of age and the incidence increases with age. It is not uncommon for one to develop a droopy upper eyelid following cataract surgery. The cataract surgery may be the "last straw" that causes a weak tendon to finally give way.

      Congenital Ptosis:

      Congenital ptosis is the common form of eyelid ptosis present since childbirth. It may involve one or both upper eyelids and vary in severity from mild to severe. This form of eyelid ptosis is often the result of lack of development of the levator muscle. Treatment is primarily surgical where the affected eyelid muscles are shortened / resected for eyelid elevation. The surgery may also use other methods to repair the ptosis, such as a technique called fascia suspension.

      What Are The Symptoms Of Ptosis?

      The drooping eyelid is the principal sign in ptosis. Children with congenital ptosis often tilt their heads back or raise their eyebrows to lift the eyelid. Adults have the same symptoms, but they also notice a loss of vision, especially in the upper field.

      What Is The Treatment For Ptosis?

      For acquired or levator dehiscence ptosis, the doctor must first determine the cause of the problem. If ptosis is a result of muscle or nerve disease, the doctor will begin by treating the disease first. If a tumor is the cause, it can sometimes be removed. In some cases, the doctor may suggest surgery. This operation is the same one surgeons use for congenital ptosis: shortening the levator muscle or connecting it to the muscles of the brow.

      For congenital ptosis, the treatment is surgery. As noted above, the procedure involves either shortening the levator muscle or attaching it to the muscles of the brow.

      Surgical Care: Congenital ptosis has physical, functional, and psychological consequences. The method of repair depends on treatment goals, the underlying diagnosis, and the degree of levator function. Although the primary reason for the repair is functional, the surgeon has an opportunity through this procedure to produce symmetry in lid height, contour, and eyelid crease for better cosmesis.

      Surgical correction of congenital ptosis can be undertaken at any age depending on the severity of the disease. Earlier intervention may be required if significant amblyopia or ocular torticollis is present. Severe cases of ocular torticollis may delay mobility in infants and toddlers because of the balance problems from extreme chin-up head posture. If intervention is not urgent, surgery is often delayed until age 3-4 years. Waiting until this age allows for more accurate measurements preoperatively.

      Surgery for ptosis in patients with a history of dry eyes, seventh cranial nerve palsy, or significant extraocular muscle abnormalities, such as severe Graves ophthalmopathy, double elevator palsy, or progressive external ophthalmoplegia, should be approached with great caution to avoid exposure keratopathy following the surgery.

      * Levator muscle resection

      o This procedure is the shortening of the levator-aponeurosis complex through a lid-crease incision. The skin incision is hidden either in the existing lid fold or in a new lid fold created to match that of the contralateral eyelid.

      o Indications: Moderate levator function must be present to offer a chance for correction with a levator resection. If the levator function is greater than 4 mm but less than 6 mm, a levator resection of greater than or equal to 22 mm is recommended. If the levator function is 6-8 mm, a levator resection of 16-18 mm is indicated. If the levator function is greater than 8 mm, a levator resection of 10-13 mm is indicated.

      o Contraindications: An external levator resection is not indicated when the levator function is less than 4 mm. In such cases, a long-term surgical outcome may result in undercorrection. Poor Bell phenomenon (limited elevation of the eye), reduced corneal sensitivity, or poor tear production can produce exposure keratopathy.

      * Frontalis suspension procedure

      o This procedure is designed to augment the patient's lid elevation through brow elevation. Frontalis suspension procedures produce lagophthalmos in most cases. Some surgeons prefer to perform a bilateral suspension procedure for severe unilateral congenital ptosis to obtain symmetry.

      o Indications: The procedure is indicated when the levator function is less than 4 mm.

      o Contraindications: Poor Bell phenomenon (limited elevation of the eye), reduced corneal sensitivity, or poor tear production can produce exposure keratopathy. If surgery is still indicated, these patients need close postoperative follow-up care.

      o Surgical technique: Several materials are available to secure the lids to the frontalis muscles. These materials include autogenous fascia lata, preserved (tissue bank) fascia, nonabsorbable suture material (eg, 2-0 Prolene or Mersilene), silicone bands, and Gore-Tex. Autogenous materials used less frequently include palmaris longus tendon and temporalis fascia. Autogenous fascia lata can be obtained from the leg of patients older than 3 years.

      o Surgical outcome: Patients may not be able to close their eyelids during sleep from a few weeks to several months following surgery. Families must be warned of this outcome before the operation. The problem of open lids during sleep improves with time; however, aggressive lubrication is needed to avoid exposure keratopathy.

      * Fasanella-Servat procedure

      o The upper lid is elevated by removing a block of tissue from the underside of the lid. This tissue includes the tarsus, conjunctiva, and Müller muscle.

      o This procedure is not commonly performed for cases of congenital ptosis.
      Now there are different types of ptosis, I am just guess it is the eyes.

    does anyone out there have thyroid disease and what problems physically or emotionally has it caused?

    • ANSWER:
      I had Grave's in my teen and early adult years and now have Hashimoto's. I have no physical problems. My emotional ones are really as a result of losing my personality to Grave's -- I rabidly defend liking to have my blood tested, just to be on the safe side. (I will not go through Hades again.) I also question my doctors too much, look up what they say is wrong with me, and acquire a lot of understanding about my body ... I'm intelligent, so I have become too vigilant and untrusting where doctors are concerned. The reason is that I had Grave's for 7 years -- doctors slapping band aids on the symptoms -- and no one ever ordered a blood test until I threatened malpractice. So, now I know they don't always have the answers, but if I keep after them, maybe they'll get close to the right one!

    Lupus Question Please answer?
    Autoimmune Disease tends to run in my family, aunt died of Lupus. Another aunt has Graves.
    Although I experience some symptoms are these severe enough to get an ANA Test.?

    Chest pain, Skin rash. Skin rash on my face. And other parts of my body? just not quite sure maybe it could be something else.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Adam,

      Considering the symptoms you are experiencing, I really feel it may be a good idea to go ahead and have the ANA test done. It's just a simple blood test that measures the anti-nuclear antibodies in your blood. If the levels are elevated it can suggest that you may be suffering from an autoimmune disease such as lupus.

      If it is elevated then your doctor will refer you to a Rheumatologist who will take a full medical history and conduct some more tests to determine exactly what you have.

      In the off chance that you do have lupus, and the fact that it runs in your family makes the chances a little higher, it is really important to have it diagnosed so that you can start preventative measures to control the disease so that you can have a good quality of life.

      You might find the website below helpful - it itemizes all the early symptoms of the disease and also explains the different kinds of lupus.

      Hope that has helped,



    Hi just sharing my thyroid problems to see if someone had same experience and outcome.?
    I had a blood test about 6 months ago which showed slighlty elevated T4, and normal TSH, pathologist suggested repeating blood test 4 - 6 weeks later.

    Second blood test showed slightly high T4 almost insignificant 19.2 pmol/L - Range (10.0 - 19.0)
    And Low TSH: 0.16 mIU/L - Range (0.50 - 4.00). This blood test was done in April this year. (2011)

    However not many symptoms apart from not sleeping well, and shaky hands (Have had shaky hands for years though, so not sure if its because of this).
    Feeling unusually hot and moody. Doctor did not prescribe any meds, didnt think i needed them. (I didnt either, sysmptoms were not too bad). He did give me a form to get blood test done around end of may. (symptoms still the same in may, not too bad, so didnt do blood test)

    Went to see other doctor, around early August, because my symptoms were getting a little worse. (By the way both docs are not endocrinologists). I told him the story so far, and he thought I should take meds for a week and see how i felt. He prescribed Neo-Mercazole - 5mg twice daily. ( I didn't buy them, so still taking no meds at this time) He asked me to show him my blood test request i got from the first doctor, and he added a test to check for thyroid antibodies.

    Still I thought I would wait and see if everything went back to normal, so left it till the 17th of this month (Oct - 2011) Yesterday to do third blood test. My symptoms have progressively got worsew.
    Feeling hot almost every day, trouble concentrating sometimes, sleep is crap, more moody than before, still shaky hands (not very bad though), eys sometimes feel irritated and sting a little (havnt noticed any swelling, just irritated eyes), just an overall feeling of disconfort)

    Got my results today:
    TSH normal - 0.66 Range (0.50-4.00) Previous test in april was 0.16
    Doc didnt check for T4, or T3 levels this time though???? Dnt know why??? Would ve thought he would want tpo check them again to compare.


    Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase: Little high - 88 kIU/L - Range (<60)
    Anti-Thyroidglobulin: Normal - 37 kIU/L - Range (<60)

    Pathologist said these are markers for autoimmune diseases like Hashimotos and Graves disease. However they are also detected in healthy people.

    So my symptoms are getting a little worse, tests are very inconclusive!! and no T4 or T3 levels tested this time.

    Should I start on the neo-mercazole? I bought them today before i got my results because i was sure that my hormone levels would be high, but doc only tested for TSH.

    Very long story I know, but thought that i need to put the whole story to give a better picture of what has been happening so far.

    Hoipe someone out there has had a similar thing happen to them, any suggestions stories would be appreciated.

    Thanks in advanced.

    • ANSWER:
      Find a doctor who can say 'you have Hashimotos'. TSH ‘norm’ should be .3 – 3 (w/ most feeling best at < 2) but, for diagnosis, would not matter if ANTIBODIES are present. Indicative of Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis (cycles between hyper & hypo at start)…main cause of HypOthyroid & is worse (...OR Graves Disease - HypERthyroid).

      WARNING: Doctors seem not to want to find/treat thyroid disease. You may have to go to more than one doctor before you get the right tests, interpretation, and treatment. Best wishes.

      Ck these:

      God bless

    About Life in the trenches in world war one. Please help asssignment due tuesday. Best info will win 10 point?
    Thankyou guys soo much

    • ANSWER:
      World War 1 Trench Warfare

      The Western Front during World War 1 stretched from the North Sea to the Swiss Frontier with France.

      Both sides dug themselves in ending any possible chance of a quick war; this caused a stalemate, which was to last for most of the war. Over 200,000 men died in the trenches of WW1, most of who died in battle, but many died from disease and infections brought on by the unsanitary conditions.

      Life in the Trenches

      The first thing a new recruit would notice on the way to the Frontline was the smell, rotting bodies in shallow graves, men who hadn't washed in weeks because there were no facilities, overflowing cess pits, creosol or chloride of lime, used to stave off the constant threat of disease and infection. Cordite, the lingering odour of poison gas, rotting sandbags, stagnant mud, cigarette smoke, and cooking food. Although overwhelming to a new recruit, they soon got used to the smell and eventually became part of the smell with their own body odour.

      A Dead soldier lies rotting on the battlefield
      A Dead soldier lies rotting on the battlefield

      Rats and Lice

      Rats were a constant companion in the trenches in their millions they were everywhere, gorging themselves on human remains (grotesquely disfiguring them by eating their eyes and liver) they could grow to the size of a cat.

      Men tried to kill them with bullets shovels or anything else they had at hand, but they were fighting a losing battle as only 1 pair of rats can produce 900 offspring in a year.

      Some soldiers believed that the rats knew when there was going to be a heavy bombardment from the enemy lines because they always seemed to disappear minutes before an attack.

      Lice were a constant problem for the men breeding in dirty clothing they were impossible to get rid of even when clothes were washed and deloused there would be eggs that would escape the treatment in the seams of the clothes.

      Lice caused Trench Fever, a particularly painful disease that began suddenly with severe pain followed by high fever. Recovery - away from the trenches - took up to twelve weeks.

      It was not discovered that lice were the cause of trench fever though until 1918.

      Millions of frogs were found in shell holes covered in water; they were also found in the base of trenches. Slugs and horned beetles crowded the sides of the trench. Many men chose to shave their heads entirely to avoid another prevalent scourge: nits.

      The cold wet and unsanitary conditions were also to cause trench foot amongst the soldiers, a fungal infection, which could turn gangrenous and result in amputation. Trench Foot was more of a problem at the start of trench warfare; as conditions improved in 1915, it rapidly faded, although a trickle of cases continued throughout the war.

      Highland Territorials jumping a German trench when attacking on the Cambrai front
      Highland Territorials jumping a German trench when attacking on the Cambrai front
      Shell Shock

      Between 1914 and 1918 the British Army identified 80,000 men (2% of those who saw active service) as suffering from shell-shock. Early symptoms
      included tiredness, irritability, giddiness, lack of concentration and headaches. Eventually the men suffered mental breakdowns making it impossible for them to remain in the front-line. Some came to the conclusion that the soldiers condition was caused by the enemy's heavy artillery. These doctors argued that a bursting shell creates a vacuum, and when the air rushes into this vacuum it disturbs the cerebro-spinal fluid and this can upset the working of the brain.

      World War 1
      Hell on Earth

      Death was everywhere in the trenches, at any time of day or night it could be your corpse laying in the mud, whether through the shell bombardment, poison gases, disease or a random bullet from a sniper.

      Taken from:

      World war 1 A Day in the Trenches

      Apart from dodging bullets and avoiding death from enemy shells, there was a daily routine in the trenches of World War 1.

      It started 1 hour before dawn with the morning "stand to" the men were roused from sleep and sent to the "fire step", with bayonets fixed to their rifles to be on guard for a dawn raid by the enemy. Many raids were carried out at dawn by both sides although it was common knowledge that the opposing armies were both preparing to deal with them.

      As the first light of day approached machineguns, shells, and even handguns would be fired toward the enemy trenches. Some people said that this was to test the weaponry. Others said it was to relieve the tension, and others said it was to ward off a dawn raid. Whatever the reason the first hour of the soldier's day became known, as "The morning hate."

      After the "Stand to" rum was issued to the soldiers who would be cleaning their rifles, before an inspection by senior officers.

      Then it was time for breakfast, unofficially breakfast time was a time of truce bet

    Diagnosed with Graves Disease and Thymic Enlargement?
    Hi my name is Sandra and I will be turning 19 very soon. I was diagnosed with Graves Disease July 2011. I've been taking methimazole for my hyperthyroidism and propranolol for my heart palpitation and hypertension. I've recently in April 2012 received radioactive iodine to destroy my thyroid. After 2 weeks, my thyroid has shrunk in size noticeably and I was feeling much better. Not until, I was having trouble breathing (shortness of breath) and I was having a mild chest pain. That's when I went to the ER 2 weeks ago, and they did a chest x-ray and noticed something was growing next to the heart. (btw. my heart is enlarged as well.) So they did a CT scan of my chest to do further investigation on that thing. The result came back and said that thing was an enlargement of thymus that was confused but bottom line they said it was a thymus gland that was enlarged. They said they don't know if it has to do with my graves disease. But what I don't understand is that I got rid of my thyroid 2 months ago and I am aware that it does takes time for thyroid to be destroyed. My question is, how do you know that my thymus is enlarged due to my thyroid. And if it doesn't have any relation can it be a tumor growing because I am also aware that by now, my thymus gland should shrunk because of my age. I recently had shortness of breath, chest pain, insomnia, cold sweats, bulky eyes, eye vision worsen, headache, muscle ache (or can be expressed as muscle cramp) and always always dehydrated. If the thymus gland is enlarged not because of graves disease, do I have to take it out? Please Answer my questions! I'm so lost, my primary doctor would not answer and all she saying is I don't know and I do respect her for being a great doctor but it really bothers me when kept saying i don't know to all my questions. Please let me know of your thoughts!

    Thank you so so much!
    Have a Wonderful week!

    Thank you Mr. Naculum...
    It was a great help!

    But right now my thyroid is most likely to be considered completely resolved because now I am HYPOthyroid. So I will be taking synthroid very soon. She wouldn't tell me in depth but she did say the thymus gland has been enlarged and extended (i don't know where it extended) and she said she recommends to talk to the endocrinologist right away but right now it is really hard to get a hold of endocrinologist. So if it is not related to thyroid, could there be possibilities that it can be a tumor?
    And also she kept saying "Talk to your endo.."

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Sandra. Thank you for providing so much information on your medical history, it makes it very easy to try to help.

      There is an association between thyroid problems and growth of the thymus. Right now it's impossible for your doctor to really know what's going on in your thymus. This is where I'm confused - you said your doctor just says "I don't know" but does she plan to have a biopsy taken of the thymus tissue? Or did she say they're going to keep an eye on it and make sure it doesn't get worse?

      I've done a little research and it seems in most cases the thymus gland will shrink back down once the thyroid issue is completely resolved. So there is two ways to go about it - 1) save the patient from an invasive procedure by waiting to see if the thymus gland shrinks after the thyroid problem is completely resolved 2) or take a biopsy early to rule out a malignant process. They can use the appearance of the thymus on the CT to decide what to do. If the thymus looks normal, just slightly large, it makes sense to wait. If the thymus starts to look different and appears to be invading the surrounding tissues, they will take a biopsy or do surgery to remove it altogether.

      Hope this helped.

      EDIT: There are basically two things that could be happening in the thymus. One is hyperplasia, which just means the gland is bigger, but normal, there's just more of it. The other possibility is a thymoma, which is a tumor of the thymus gland. Both of these conditions have been associated with Graves. The CT scan can help differentiate between a malignant (cancerous) appearing thymus and a benign enlarged thymus, but it's not 100% accurate in making that distinction. I'm confused about your recent symptoms, because those sound more like hyperthyroid than hypothyroid. At this point, your endocrine problems are over your family doctor's head. Has she given you a referral to an endocrinologist? Or didn't you already have one? It's essential that you get in to see an endocrinologist, as these problems are beyond the scope of family medicine. It would be inappropriate for your family doc to try to treat all this herself, and she should help you find an endocrinologist who can see you in a timely manner.

    I seem to have a strange hunger problem...?
    when mealtimes come, i'm not hungry at all. however, in between mealtimes, i get very hungry and eat then. it just started about 3 days ago. i'm in my early teens and this has never happened before. it might just be that my body wants to eat then, but it's so sudden i was wondering if it's a little more serious. thank you in advance.

    • ANSWER:
      Could be anything. Your metabolism could be speeding up, your boby clock could just be out of whack, or in the most likely teen case, your hormones could just be screwing with you. I wouldn't worry too much if it has only been going on three days now.

      Then again it could be more serious. You could have a thryroidian problem or some other sort of metabolic symptom. I have Grave's Disease which manifested in part like that. In any case I highly recommend that you have a blood test done and looked at by your doctor. That should manage to detect any sort of blood sugar problem or hormonal metabolic unbablance.

    I'm male 22 having symptoms like pimples, muscle pain, fatigue, blurred vision, light headache, warm/hot feet,?
    I'm male 22 having symptoms like pimples, muscle pain, fatigue, blurred vision, light headache, warm/hot feet, fever(unstable) which comes in the evenings and early mornings. what could it be?

    • ANSWER:
      Have you had your thyroid tested? You need testing for thyroid ANTIBODIES as well as TSH. TSH ‘norm’ should be .3 – 3 (w/ most feeling best at < 2) but would not matter if ANTIBODIES are present. Indicative of Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis (cycles between hyper & hypo at start)…main cause of HypOthyroid & is worse (...OR Graves Disease - HypERthyroid).

      WARNING: Doctors seem not to want to find/treat thyroid disease. You may have to go to more than one doctor before you get the right tests, interpretation, and treatment. Best wishes.

      Ck these:

      God bless

    Hashimoto Thyroiditis?
    For quite a few months I've been feeling weird. Panic attacks, heat sensitivity, nervousness, claustrophobic, anxious, and never got any sleep. My family doctor put me on a mood stabilizer (effexor) about 2 months ago. Haven't really seen any improvements. My endocrinologist has run a series of blood tests and has only diagosed me with Hashimoto's. I do not have Grave's disease. Nothing is helping, and he just wants to "wait it out." Has anyone else had these problems? Are there any natural remedies for hyperthyroidism?

    • ANSWER:
      Does your doctor believe that you have hashimoto's toxicosis? That would be a temporary increase in thyroid hormone levels early in the course of Hashimoto's disease, caused by destruction of the thyroid and release of hormone stores. It resolves itself, although the person often goes on to develop hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's toxicosis has to waited out (although if symptoms are bad, you treat symptoms).

      If you have high levels of thyroid hormones (or just low TSH) then the above is a possibility, but your doctor can't possibly differentiate that from Grave's disease without an iodine uptake. Although one thyroid antibody is more common with Hashimoto's, and the other with Grave's, they both can occur with both diseases. It's important to check which one because if it's Grave's it should be treated and if it's Hashitoxicosis then you should wait because it will take care of itself.

      If your levels of thyroid hormone are low or your TSH is high, and you have antibodies, then you have Hashimoto's, and it should not be waited out: it should be treated.

      I had subacute thyrotoxicosis which was not related to Hashimoto's, and it was really tough waiting it out. I was symptomatic from roughly January to July 2009. I had panic attacks, heat sensitivity, anxiety, a full body tremor, I lost a fifth of my body weight, had intense dizziness, my resting pulse went up by more than 20 beats per minute... it was pretty awful and pretty scary. But it did end, all by itself. No treatment. My TSH, by the way, was 0.20 when we first checked it in April and was 0.12 when we checked it a month later in May. Although I was still symptomatic, it had returned to the normal range by early July.

    what causes hot flushes and excessive persperation?
    28yr old female (daughter neally 10yrs old) I have suffered hot flushes for 3 yrs. excessive full on perspiration. Period on time, but barely a day. have had graves disease, but no longer.Was on heart pills because of Graves disease. Still get occasiaonal heart pains though. No where near as severe as before and during graves disease. symptoms before diagnosis of fot flushes and persperation are stil continuing. hormone levels are fine. So not early menopause. Drs don't know. Feeling very frustrated. Not anxiety or stress. Times last from 30secs to couple hours of hot flush. Sweat just rolls off from beginning to anywhere from hours later. Have tried every deodarant in book. natural to driclor? to none. don't work. Most times it is a strong odour that i hate.
    Please can anybody help me?????

    • ANSWER:
      its a hormonal problem..perhaps a blood cleansing diet would be of help..and the odor..

    how likely is it that i will have a thyroid problem?
    my mom had hyperthyroidism and graves disease she went into a thyroid storm and nearly died when i was a kid. i am now having some of the symptoms she had early on, i am frequently hot when others are freezing which is new because i am normally very cold natured, i am having trouble remembering things, not sure if it is related but i am constantly throwing up the past few weeks i haven't been able to eat anything that i dont throw right back up, i have been having headaches a lot and these are all things she went through before she went into thyroid storm i have been trying for two weeks to get an appointment with my dr. and everytime i call they say that they are full and can't get me in and they won't set me up an appointment they just tell me to call back another day i dont know what is going on with that but should i just go to the hospital ER and get them to check it?

    • ANSWER:
      The 'hot' sounds like hypER but some of the other sounds like hypO...could be Hashimoto's which is both! Need to be checked including test for antibodies. Norm TSH is .3 -3.

      Ck these:

      Bless you

    had severe SPD in last pregnancy, will it show earlier?
    Hi guys.
    We are not TTC but i have come to the end of my Depo shot and haven't had my next one as i have been experiencing symptoms like my last pregnancy......Im having the usual slightly tender breasts and bloating, but also fatigue and a metalic taste in my mouth which i got around 9dpo with my last pregnancy so thought it best to not get it done.
    I know i can get a test done by my doctor before hand (this is going to sound silly) but my worst fear is me going in for something else and being told im pregnant.....id rather do a test in the comfort of my own with the test in my hand...so im going to do one tomorow.

    The thing is, i had severe SPD in the last pregnancy (i have 2 boys). It started at 16weeks and i was unable to walk unaided by about 24 weeks and then got induced at 37weeks as i was on so many pain killers and in so much agony.
    For the past 2 weeks i am getting pains around that region again.....im having A LOT of lower back ache and pains down the sides of my hips, my SPD has never fully gone and if i did too much id get some pains down there but now for no reason these pains iv mentioned are constant.

    Has anyone suffered from this and in early pregnancy its started to play up a bit, thankyou for taking time to read this x

    (p.s, i would love another child but due to health reasons,graves disease, it isnt advisable just yet...if i am i think there is a safe medication for pregnancy) x

    • ANSWER:
      hi ive got 5 children and with my last to baby's i have severe SPD :( and i was unable to walk and the pain was sooooo bad the first time i had it it started at 28 weeks and the second time it was about 14 weeks even after having my children i still have a lot of probs with it i think you should go to the doctors they are the best one to help you with this hope this helps

    Does anyone know anything about the origin of the myth of vampires?
    (i know they aren't)
    i need to know about the origin of vampires
    like Vlad Dracule(a) and stuff like that
    if you could help me that would be wonderful

    • ANSWER:
      If vampires did (or do) exist, where did they come from? The answers to these questions have varied widely as the vampire has appeared in the folklore of different countries and various fiction writers have speculated on the nature of vampirism.

      The Folkloric Vampire:
      The vampire figure in folklore emerged as an answer to otherwise unsolvable problems within culture. The vampire was seen as the cause of certain unexplainable evils, accounted for the appearance of some extraordinary occurrences within the society, and was often cited as the end product of immoral behavior. The earliest vampires seem to have originated as an explanation of problems in childbirth. For example, the langsuyar--the primary vampire figure of Malaysia--was a beautiful young woman who had given birth to a stillborn child. Upon hearing her child's fate, she clapped her hands and flew away into the trees. Henceforth, she attacked children and sucked their blood. A similar tale was told of the lamiai, the original vampire of Greece.
      Just as tales of vampires were inspired by childbirth problems, they also originated from unusual circumstances surrounding births. Children who were different at birth were considered to be vampire candidates. For example, among the Kushubian (Polish) people, children born with a membrane cap on their heads or with two teeth were likely to become vampires unless dealt with properly while growing up.

      Similarly, some vampre stories originated from problems surrounding the death of a loved one. In eastern Europe, vampires were individuals who returned from the grave to attack their spouses, their immediate families, and possibly other acquaintences in the village. Symtoms of vampiric attack included nightmares, apparitions of the bed, and the death of family members by a wasting disease (such as tuberculosis). Some of the symptoms point to the vampire as a product of the greiving process, espcially the continued ties of the living to the dead,often taking the form of unfnished emotional business. Thus, vampires were seen as originating as a product from the failure of the family (in a time before the existence of funeral parlors) to perform the funeral and burial rites with exactly precision. A common event that allegedly led to the creation of a vampire was allowing an animal such as a cat to jump over the body of a dead person prior to burial. Vampirism was also caused by unexpected and sudden violet deaths, either from accidents or suicides.

      Suicides were also part of a largerclass of vampiresthat existed as a result of the immoral behavior of the person who became a vampire. The vampire served as an instrument of social control for the moral leaders of the community. Thus, people who stepped outside of the moral leaders of the community not only jeopordized their souls, and might become vampires. A potential vampire committed evil acts, amoung them suicide, and anyone guilty of great evil, espcecially of an antisocial nature, was thought likely to become a vampire after death. In some Christian countries, notably Russia and Greece, heresy could also lead to vampirism. The heretic was one type of person who died in the state of excommunication from the church. Excommunication could be pronounced for a number of unforgiven sins from actions directly attacking the church to more common immoralities such as adultry or murder. Heresy was also associated in some cultures with witchcraft, defined as consorting with Satan and/or the working of malevolent antisocial magic. Witches who practiced their craft in their earthly lives might become vampires after their deaths.

      Vampire Contamination:
      After the first vampire was created, a community of vampires might soon follow. When a particular vampire figure, such as the original lamiai, took its place in the mythology of a people as a lesser deity or demon, they sometimes multiplied into a set of similar beings. Thus, Greek mythology posed the existance of numerous lamiai, a class of demonic entities. They were assumed to exist as part of the larger supernatural environment and, as such, the question of their origin was never raised. Their victims might suffer either physical harm or death as a result of the vampire's assult, but they did not become vampires.
      Things were quite different in eastern Europe. There, vampires were former members of the community. Vampires could draw other members of the community into their vampiric existence by commtaminating former family and neighbors, usually by biting them. In the famous case od Arnold Paul, the vampiric state was passed by meat from cows that had been bitten by Paul.

      The Literary Vampire:
      In the nineteenth century, the vampire figure was wrenched from its rural social context in eastern Europe and brought into the relativly secularized culture of western European cities. It was introduced into the romantic imagination of writers cut off from mythological context from the few bits of knowledge they possessed. In examining the few vampire cases at thier disposal, most prominently the Arnold Paul case, they learned that vampires were created by people being bitten by other vampires.
      The imaginary vampire of the nineteenth-century romanticism was an isolated individual. Unlike the eastern European vampire, the literary vampire did not exist in a village culture as a symbol of warning residents of the dangerous and devilish life outside the boundaries of approved village life. The imaginary vampire was a victim of irresistible supernatural attack. Against their wills, they were overwhelmed by the vampiric state and, much like drug addicts, forced to live lives built around their blood lust. The majority of beliefs associated with the origins of vampires were irrelevant to the creators of the literary vampire, although on occasion one element might be picked up to give a novel twist to a vampiric tale.

      Underlying much of the modern vampire lore was the belief that vampires attacked humans and, through that attack, drew victims into their world. Again, like drug addicts might share an addiction and turn others into addicts, so the vampire infected nonvampires with their condition. Writers have generally suggested that vampires primarily, if not exclusively, created new vampires by their bites. The radical simplification of the vampire myth can be seen in Dracula, especially its treatment on the stage and screen. Stoker did not deal directly with the problem of Dracula's origin as a vampire. In Dr. Abraham Van Helsing's famous speech in chapter 18, where he described in some detail the nature of the vampire, he suggested that Dracula became a vampire because "he had dealings with the Evil One." More importantly, however, was his ability to transform people into vampires. Dracula's bite was a necessary part of that transformation, but, of itself, not sufficient. Jonathan Harker was bitten a number of times by three vampire women, but did not become a vampire. Lucy Westenra did turn into a vampire and Mina Murray was in the process of being transformed into a vampire when the men interrupted Dracula. In the key scene in chapter 21, Dracula, having previously drunk Mina's blood, forced her to drink his. Thus, in Dracula new vampires originated not from the bite of the vampire but by an exchange of blood. Other authors have used similar means of transformation with their characters, however, in Anne Rice's novel Interview with the Vampire Lois was the one to drain Claudia, while it was Lestat who gave her his blood and brought her across. This suggests that it is not an exchange of blood, but the draining of one's mortal blood and replacement with vampiric blood which is vital for the transformation.

      Bram Stoker had little material to draw upon in considering this point. John Polidori avoided the question in his original vampire story. Varney the Vampyre, the subject of the 1840s novel, became a vampire as punishment for accidentally killing his son, but the actual manner of transformation was not revealed. Sheridan Le Fanu was familiar with the folkloric tradition and suggested suicide as the cause of new vampires, but saw the death of a person previously bitten by a vampire as the basic means of spreading vampirism. His anti-heroin Carmilla was the product of a vampire's bite.

      In the rewriting of Dracula for stage and screen, the scene from the book where Mina consumes Dracula's blood was deleted. It was considered to risqué, but without it some other means had to be found to transmit the vampiric state. Thus came the suggestion that merely the vampire's bite transmitted the condition-the common assumption of most vampire novels and movies. At times, vampires require multiple bites or had to take enough blood to cause the death of the victim.

      While most books and movies have not dealt with the questions of vampire origins apart from the passing of the vampiric condition through the bite of a preexisting vampire, occasionally writers have attempted to create a vampire myth that covers the origin of the first vampire. Among the most intriguing of recent origin stories was that told by Anne Rice in the third of her vampire chronicles, The Queen of the Damned. Akasha and Enkil ruled as queen and king of ancient Egypt. At one point Akasha had two witches, Maharet and Mekere, brought to her court. They allowed her to see the world of spirits, but then one of the spirits, Amel, attacked her. Akasha turned on the two witches and in her rage ordered them raped publicly and then banished. However, both Akasha and Enkil were intrigued by the spirit world and began to explore it on their own. Meanwhile, an uprising occurred and the rulers were seriously wounded. Akasha's soul escaped from her body temporarily only to encounter the spirit of Amel who joined himself to her. Her soul reentered her body and brought Amel with it. Fused with her brain and heart, the presence of Amel turned her into a vampire. She, in turn, past the vampiric condition to Enkil and their steward, Khayman, by the more traditional bite. All other vampires in the book, who originated from a vampire's bite, have a lineage that can ultimately be traced to these first three vampires.

      The Vampire Bat:
      In chapter 12 of Dracula, Bram Stoker suggested, but did not develop, the idea that bats might ultimatly be the cause of vampirism. Quincy P. Morris delivered a brief oration on his encounter with vampire bats in South America. Although vampire bats made numerous appearances in vampire lore--primarily as humans temporarily transformed into animal form--few writers developed the idea of vampirism originating with vampire bats.
      Most prominent amoung the few stories in which vampirism originated with a bat was Dark Shadows. The Dark Shadows storyline, took Barnabus Collins back to 1795 to his origin as a vampire. Spurning the witch Angelique's love for him, Barnabus wound up in a fight with her and shot her. Wounded and near death, she cursed Barnabus and a bat attacked him. He died from the bite and arose from the grave as a vampire. Subsequently, Barnabus created other vampires in common manner--by biting them and draining their blood to the point of death.

      The Science Fiction Vampire:
      A final option concerning the origin of vampires was derived from science fiction. As early as 1942 in his short story "Asylum," A.E. van Vogt suggested that vampires were an alien race who originated in outer space. The most successful of comic book vampires, Vampirilla, was a space alien. She originated on the planet Draculon and came to earth to escape her dying planet. Ultimatly, in the Vampirilla storyline, even Dracula was revealed to be an alien.
      Science fiction also suggested a second origin for the vampire: disease. Not incompatible with either vampire bats or outer space aliens, disease (either in the form of germs or altered blood chemistry) provided a nonsupernatueral explanation of the vampire's existance--an opinion demanded by many seculized readers or theatergoers. Disease explained the vampire's strange behavior, from its nocturnal existance to the "allergy" to garlic to its blood lust. This idea was explored most prominently in Richard Matheson's I Am Legend.

      In the end however, the science the science fiction space vampire was like its supernatural cousin. Whatever its origin the vampire was the bearer--at least potentially--of its condition to anyone it attacked, and the vampire's bite was the most common way to spread vampirism.

    scan anyone inform me on Graves Disease?
    i think it can have some effects on the eyes?

    • ANSWER:
      It's an autoimmune disorder that affects more than one system. It usually presents with an enlarged thyroid gland and what's called exophthalmos. That is the effect on the eyes you are talking about. It looks a bit like the eyes are popping out of their sockets.
      It is seen most frequently in women between the ages of 30 and 60. Men do have the disorder, but it is about 5 times more prevalent in women.
      Other symptoms may include hand tremors, weight loss, fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, heat intolerance, increased metabolic rate and GI motility. There are other symptoms that may occur.
      Infection, physical or emotional stress usually precedes the condition.
      If left untreated, infection or stress could lead to a life threatening condition of the thyroid. Even with treatment, it is possible that the bulging of the eyes may not be relieved. The protrusion of the eyeballs is also called Grave's orbitopathy.
      If you have it, the earlier your treatment the better.

early symptoms of graves disease