Medical Remedies In The Middle Ages

As women get older and start to enter that 'middle age' bracket, physical and hormonal changes start to occur, which lead to them sleeping lighter, waking up more frequently and sleeping less soundly. This can lead to increased tiredness, less energy and mood swings caused by the patchy night's sleep. Add to that the hot flushes and night sweats, commencement of snoring can be the last straw for peaceful bedtimes for both themselves and their partners.

It is estimated that 70% of men snore and 40% of women but this percentage can change over different age groups. According to statistics, more men than women snore between the age of 30-35 years but as they age, women tend to catch up with the men after the age of 55 years. But whether a man snores or a woman, it is the physical changes leading to snoring that are similar.

Many women find that they start snoring after the age of 50-53 years and this is due to the onset of menopause. Sudden weight gain, mood swings and hot flushes are all symptoms of the pre menopausal stage and post menopausal stage due to the imbalance of hormones that creates a mid age crisis. But the main culprit for women who suddenly starting to snore, is due to the increased weight gain, which is why it is important to maintain a healthy weigh range at this time.

And it is not just those heavily overweight that can suffer snoring. Just being a little overweight can bring on the problem. "Men about 20 percent over ideal body weight can develop snoring. Women have to be much heavier, usually 30 to 40 percent over ideal body weight. But the more overweight you are, the more likely it is that your airway will collapse." says Philip Smith, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins University Sleep Disorders Center in Baltimore, Maryland.

'Middle age spread' in both mean and women, starts to appear, not only as fat stored in the different parts of the body but also around the throat area. This results in layers of fat forming which exerts pressure on the trachea, breathing passages and airways. The narrowing of the air passages creates intense vibration as the air goes over the soft tissues and makes that magical sound we know as snoring.

"Snoring is frequently related to being overweight," says Dr. Dunn of the University of Toronto Sunnybrook Medical Centre Sleep Laboratory. "We've found that if a moderate snorer loses weight, the snoring becomes less loud, and in some people it actually disappears."

By eating a wholesome, healthy diet, and exercising regularly, this can help keep your weight in check. Exercising will also help you to sleep more soundly and reduce the intensity of the hot flushes, which is an added bonus. If you still continue to snore, try out some of the numerous snoring solutions that are available on the market before resorting to separate rooms.

I have described snoring as the 'silent relationship killer' as it can slowly destroy the intimacy of a relationship without the couple even realizing it and sleeping in separate rooms can also reduce the intimacy in a relationship. Menopause is a stressful enough time for women without the adding even more stress to their relationship.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What are the best remedies for Gout?
    I would like to know what are the best remedies for gout? Not involving drugs. My other half suffers from gout in his leg and sometimes ends up limping.

    • ANSWER:
      Gout is a common type of arthritis that occurs when an excessive amount of uric acid in the blood, tissues and urine crystallizes in the joints. People who have gout are unable to break down and excrete uric acid, a byproduct of digesting certain foods. It usually comes on suddenly, and can last from a few hours to several days. It can cause extremely sore toes or other areas of the foot, and because it frequently manifests itself in the big toe, it is also known as "gouty big toe". Another name is "gouty arthritis". Gout can also appear in an ear, heel of the hand, small hand joints, ankles, knees, elbows, or wrists with inflammation, swelling and intense pain from the buildup of uric acid crystals. Uric acid is the end product of the metabolism of a class of chemicals known as purines. In people with gout, the body does not have enough of the digestive enzyme uricase, and, as a result, uric acid builds up and crystallizes. Left uncontrolled, excessive excretion of uric acid in the urine can lead to the development of painful kidney stones, kidney disease, and even kidney failure.

      Gout is associated with high blood pressure, kidney disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and uric acid kidney stones.

      It is estimated that up to 2 million people have gout. Between 75-90% of gout sufferers are middle-aged males and 25% have family members with it. In women, uric acid starts building up after menopause, quite possibly due to the drop in estrogen.

      Remedies
      Folk
      Alfalfa is a good source of minerals and other nutrients that help reduce serum uric acid.

      Apple cider vinegar (ACV) Add some rose hips to vinegar and boil; dab on affected area. You may need to apply this mixture several times a day for a few weeks. The vinegar changes the blood pH so that the crystals will go into solution and be excreted.

      • Mix two teaspoons each of apple cider vinegar and raw honey in a glass of water and drink at mealtime.

      • Soak the foot in a mixture of 1/2 cup of ACV and three cups of hot water.

      Bilberry is high in anthocyanosides and flavonoids, which are helpful in overcoming gout.

      Black cherry juice Get some natural, concentrated black cherry juice and drink several tablespoons of the concentrate daily. You should expect relief in 48 hours.

      Black cohash moderates blood acidity.

      Blueberries are high in anti-inflammatory compounds called anthocyanins, which help ease the pain of gout.

      Buchu tea helps dissolve and flush out uric acid crystals.

      Castor oil packs Soak a piece of white flannel in warm castor oil, wring it out and place over the affected area; cover with plastic wrap and apply a heating pad. Do this for one hour twice daily.

      Cayenne pepper Boil one tablespoon of pepper in 1 cup of vinegar and 1 cup of water and dab onto the painful joint.

      • Mix cayenne with enough wintergreen oil to make a paste and apply to the affected area.

      Celery seeds These seeds are quite effective in relieving gout by eliminating uric acid from the body. According to James Duke, Ph.D., a medical botanist formerly with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, celery seeds contain about twenty different anti-inflammatory agents. Although there is little scientific research on celery seeds, according to Kerry Bone, a leading expert on herbal remedies in Australia, "it (sic) works brilliantly in patients." Recommended dosage is 500 mg (standardized to 450 mg of celery seed extract) 2x daily. Note: This remedy is not to be used by pregnant women because of its diuretic effect and the fact that it can encourage uterine contractions, or those with kidney disease because of its potential diuretic effect and that the plant's oils can worsen kidney inflammation.

      • Cook a tablespoon of celery seeds in two cups of water until they are soft; strain and drink 1/2 cup four times a day.

      Charcoal Take 1/2 -1 teaspoon of activated charcoal daily.

      • Make a poultice using � cup of activated charcoal, 3 tablespoons of ground flaxseed and warm water to draw out the toxins.

      Cherries If you are lucky enough to have fresh cherries, eating 6-8 cherries daily will relieve the symptoms of gout. This remedy was reported in 1950 by Dr. Ludwig W. Blau who cured his own gout. Frozen and canned cherries may also be used. When you feel an attack coming on, eat 20-30 cherries immediately. Cherries are rich in compounds that prevent the destruction of collagen, which the body uses to form connective tissue. The connective tissue is damaged by gout. Cherries also have an enzyme that neutralizes uric acid and are high in anthocyanins which have high antioxidant properties as well as anti-inflammatory action. For greatest effectiveness eat them between meals.

      Devil's claw reduces uric acid levels and is a natural cleansing agent for toxic impurities. Take 400 mg of the dried extract 3x a day for as long as desired.

      DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) is very effective in relieving pain and swelling caused by inflammation. It helps dissolve crystalline deposits.

      Garlic Eat several cloves of raw garlic daily. Mince the garlic and add it to black cherry juice for a potent remedy.

      Ginger Put 1/3 cup of ground ginger (buy in bulk to keep the cost down) in a bathtub of water and soak for 30 minutes. This will cause you to sweat (a good thing) which will help eliminate the uric acid from your tissues. When you are finished the bath be sure to rinse off thoroughly, as the ginger can cause skin irritation if it dries on your skin.

      Grapes are high in alkalines which lessen the acidity of uric acid and aid in its elimination from the body.

      Hawthorn is high in anthocyanosides and flavonoids, which are helpful in overcoming gout.

      Hydrangea is an anti-inflammatory.

      Ice Apply an ice pack for ten minutes, then alternate with a moist hot-towel compress, to soothe and numb the pain.

      Mullein Soak mullein leaves in a hot vinegar/water mixture. Pack the leaves on the affected area.

      Nettle contains alkaloids which neutralize uric acid.

      Parsley acts as a natural diuretic.

      Quercetin The flavonoid quercetin inhibits uric acid production in a similar fashion to commonly prescribed drugs for gout. Take 1000 mg of quercetin along with 1,000-1,500 mg of the enzyme bromelain (to enhance absorption) two to three times daily between meals. Bromelain also help reduce the inflammation.

      Red clover has traditionally been one of the standard remedies for gout, as well as removing toxins from the body, and treating psoriasis, eczema, and hot flashes. Studies have shown that red clover may thin the blood, so it should not be used by patients who are also taking an anticoagulant medication. While red clover is high in isoflavones, the reason it is helpful in treating gout has not been studied.

      Saffron neutralizes uric acid buildup.

      Spearmint Make a poultice of spearmint leaves and wrap the affected area.

      Strawberries Eating a cup of strawberries with each meal should bring quick relief. They neutralize uric acid.

      Yarrow Make a tea by using equal parts of yarrow and stinging nettles; strain, cool and drink several cups a day.

      Prevention
      • One of the best ways to prevent gout is to drink at least 6-8 eight ounce glasses of water, fresh juices or herb tea daily, especially at the first signs of gout. This will keep your urine diluted and will help your body excrete uric acid and prevent crystals from forming.

      • Eat foods high in potassium, as mentioned above.

      • Eating generous amounts of other fruits and vegetables helps keep uric acid crystals in solution.

      • Take the flavonoid quercetin - see below under Folk Remedies. This should be part of your permanent gout-prevention diet.

      • Having sex prevents men from getting gout. It seems that increased sexual activity reduces uric acid levels in fertile men.

      • Lemon juice prevents gout attacks by stimulating the formation of calcium carbonate in the body. Calcium carbonate neutralizes acids in the body, including uric acid that triggers gout attacks. After each meal drink the juice of one freshly squeezed lemon in a glass of lukewarm water. To get more juice out of the lemon, bring it to room temperature, then roll it around on the counter with the palm of your hand.

      • Taking 1/2 teaspoon of baking soda with meals will prevent gout attacks. This will help alkalize the body.

      • Keep the leg elevated.

      • A high fiber diet also aids in the elimination of uric acid by absorbing bile acids formed in the liver. These bile acids can act as a precursor to uric acid.

      Foods and Other Things to Avoid
      • Meat: organ meats, offal, meat extracts, veal, bacon, sweetbreads, meat gravies and broths, consommé/bullion

      • Poultry: turkey, goose

      • Seafood: salmon, mackerel, trout, cod, herring, sardines, anchovies, mussels, crab, shrimp

      • Vegetables: peas, beans, lentils, asparagus, mushrooms, cooked spinach, rhubarb, cauliflower

      • Yeast products: baked goods, beer

      • Alcohol - it increases the production of uric acid and inhibits its excretion by the kidneys

      • Coffee - it accelerates the breakdown of protein into uric acid

      • All fried foods - they cause a depletion of vitamin E, which can cause uric acid to rise

      • Cream and ice cream

      • Rich desserts

      • Spices

      • Pastries

      • Simple sugars, simple carbohydrates and saturated fats - they increase your body's production of uric acid and impair your kidneys' ability to get rid of it. Eliminate fructose (found in food and drinks, like sodas)

      • White flour

      • Aspirin can raise uric acid levels. If you need to use pain killers, only use ones with ibuprofen.

      • Oatmeal

      • Whole grains

      • Caffeine - it impairs kidney function, which is needed to get uric acid out of the body.

      HOPE THAT HELPS!

  2. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have any home remedies for a migraine?
    My friend is in the middle of a bad migraine. Right now, we're using the q-tip method and hoping for the best, but any other ideas would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Happy to see you being so caring towards your friend :)

      First ask him if he's constipated also.If yes,make him eat lots of raw fruits and vegetable in his daily diet,including high fibre foods like oats,whole grain cereals,etc.

      Ask him to handle flatulence also,if he has it.

      Since your friend's entire medical history,age,weight,physiological conditions,etc are unknown I can only give you a general advice.

      For a more detailed expert advice & therapy for your problem(recommended),kindly visit my profile and send me a mail at my e-mail ID given therein.

  3. QUESTION:
    How Were You To Be Treated If Your Were Sick In The Middle Ages ?
    Who Would A King Go To For Medical Problems ?
    Who Would Treat The Peasants Diseases ?
    What Kind Of Treatments Were Commonly Used ?

    • ANSWER:
      They had "physicians" but these were nothing akin to the doctors of today.

      Treatments depended upon the disease, of course. But some common remedies included leeches and bleeding. It was assumed that disease was caused by ill humors in the blood, so they thought that they could make someone healthier by making them bleed out the bad blood. Of course, today we know that losing blood is one of the worst things that can happen to a very sick person.

      They also had some herbal remedies, some of which were effective, some not. And, of course, praying was the most widely used method of caring for the sick.

      Speaking of praying, we should all thank God that we don't live in the Middle Ages!

  4. QUESTION:
    What does general age show about a civilization?
    If there are no elderly people in a civilization, what does this show about the civilization?

    • ANSWER:
      you can make a connection with these facts:

      primitive societies had (or have, there still are some) a very short life expectancy. at 30 they were already old. during the middle ages, the same phenomenon happened. why? because health was not a priority, and neither was hygiene. the cities were crammed, dirty, had no sewers, no fresh water and so on. diseases could spread unbelievably fast under the circumstances (see the plague, as the radical example). there were no effective medical remedies for diseases, on the contrary sometimes the alleged remedy actually killed the patient.

      so, no elderly people means that particular civilization has not come up with solutions to such problems as described before. this is to explain the big picture.

      in sociology, life expectancy is determined by such factors as the development of the healthcare system, income levels, poverty levels, social aid development and other such systems. some rather fine differences in life exp. between countries are explained by means of the differences in these factors.

      the shortest possible explanation: the more developed a country,the older its people.

      edit - you might want to research this further for more accurate details.

  5. QUESTION:
    What is the cause of snoring and what is the remedy?
    I am suffering with this problem it is actually in the initial stage and it is disturbing me and my husband though he does not say much but I can see that it is effecting his sleep. I am using a spray at night which is not very effective and I dont want to get use to it. Pls help!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Snoring: Causes and Cures
      GUIDE TO CAUSES, CURES & TREATMENTS

      Snoring

      Just about everyone snores occasionally. Even a baby or a beloved pet may snore! But snoring can affect the quantity and quality of your sleep. Poor sleep can lead to daytime fatigue, irritability and increased health problems. And, if your snoring is so loud that your bed partner can't sleep, you may end up banished from the bedroom.

      Sleeping in separate bedrooms doesn’t have to be the remedy for your snoring. In fact, there are many effective treatments for snoring. Discovering the cause of your snoring and finding the right cure will vastly improve your health, your relationships, and, of course, your sleep.
      In This Article:

      * How to stop snoring
      * The causes of snoring
      * Snoring problems and relationships
      * Snoring relief: Self help tips and remedies
      * Medical cures and treatments
      * Related links

      How to stop snoring

      Snoring can often seem like a problem without a solution – especially when it is getting in the way of a good night’s sleep for you and your partner. If you want to stop snoring, it is important to consider the cause and severity of your snoring. Identifying the cause can help you choose the right cure.

      It also makes sense to try some simple non-invasive treatments first to see if they will reduce or prevent your snoring. See the section on Self help tips and remedies below for more information on these snoring cures.

      * Sleep on your side
      * Elevate the head of your bed
      * Limit alcohol and medications
      * Clear your nasal passages
      * Lose weight

      You may find that your snoring persists even after trying these changes. If your snoring results from a more serious cause, a cure may be more complex – but there are solutions. Your nights don’t have to be noisy! Read on to learn more about the possible causes of your snoring as well as treatment options. If you can uncover the cause of your snoring, you should be able to find a cure that is right for you.
      The causes of snoring
      Where does the snore sound come from?

      Snoring is caused by a narrowing of your airway, either from poor sleep posture or abnormalities of the soft tissues in your throat. A narrow airway gets in the way of smooth breathing and creates the sound of snoring.

      People who snore often have too much throat and nasal tissue, or “floppy” tissue that is more prone to vibrate. The position of the tongue can also get in the way of smooth breathing. Evaluating how and when you snore will help you pinpoint whether the cause of your snoring is within your control or not. Enlist your sleep partner or keep a sleep diary to help you determine the possible cause of your snoring
      Tip: The way you snore may reveal why you snore!

      If you snore

      * With your mouth closed: a problem with the tongue is probably the culprit
      * With your mouth open: your snoring is likely related to the tissues in your throat
      * Only on your back: your snoring is probably mild – improved sleep habits and lifestyle changes may be effective cures
      * In all sleep positions: your snoring is more severe and may require a more comprehensive treatment

      Causes and Risk Factors of Snoring
      Causes out of our control Causes within our control

      * Heredity - A narrow throat, a cleft palate, enlarged adenoids and other physical attributes which contribute to snoring can be hereditary.
      * Being middle-aged or beyond - As you age, your throat becomes narrower, and the muscle tone in your throat decreases.
      * Being male - Men have narrower air passages than women and are more likely to snore.
      * Allergies, asthma, a cold, or sinus infections - Blocked airways make inhalation difficult and create a vacuum in the throat, leading to snoring

      * Being overweight or out of shape - Fatty tissue and poor muscle tone contribute to snoring.
      * A history of smoking – Smoking (or exposure to second-hand smoke) relaxes muscles and creates nasal congestion.
      * Alcohol or medications - Alcohol and medications increase muscle relaxation leading to more snoring.
      * Sleeping posture - Sleeping flat on your back allows the flesh of your throat to relax and block the airway.

      Snoring problems and relationships

      Snoring can get in the way of a good night’s sleep and a healthy relationship with your spouse or partner. Many couples affected by snoring resort to sleeping in separate bedrooms in order to get a good night’s sleep. This arrangement may help both people sleep better, but it can disrupt communication and intimacy.

      Mild snoring that isn't related to sleep apnea responds well to home remedies. Finding a cure for your snoring problem can result in an improved quality of life for you and your loved ones.

  6. QUESTION:
    What does the wohd hammurabi mean it has to do with medical?
    It has to do wiht a physcian and patient.

    • ANSWER:
      The Hammurabic Code is an issuance of social law applied by the King of Babylon.
      In the writing below you may find interesting referrence to this question. Jose

      “Whose Child is this Anyway?”
      Underlying social factors that have influenced the development of the correctional philosophy are in my opinion, economics, religion and social status. It is reasonable to note that these main underlying factors have afforded to the view of correctional philosophy.
      For example is the Hammurabic Code, the 1st Comprehensive Statement of Prohibited Behavior of 1750BC, and developed the King of Babylon. In this instance can be seen a social status that must maintain rule over their provident subjects. As civil as the ruling may seem it is this foundation that gave way to the Punishment as Spectacle syndrome in corrections and crime control, affording the lawgiver and executioner a firm grip on power by resorting to extreme punishment such as drawing and quartering. And for these reasons is the social status a factor in correctional philosophy [cp].
      Another is the economy and which is evident since the Middle Ages. Since “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth” were not an economic remedy, the transition from Public Spectacle onto “Lex Talonis” was inevitable. At Lex Talonis an injured party was afforded remedy through wergild or man-money that was to be paid out to relatives of a murdered person or to a victim of a crime in order to compensate for the injury, and thusly avoiding further violence and civil unrest. This concept and its application did alleviate expense for crime control, expense of tribunal proceedings and afforded a venue for an economic settlement by the injured parties.
      Not only are social statuses and economic pressures an influence on cp, but religion also as well. During these same epochs the Church was considered as a dominant social institution, which exercised its rule and power and afforded accused parties with “Benefit of Clergy” rule. This rule provided an accused an alternative to secular sanction through ecclesiastical sanction that was imposed by an ecclesiastical court [Law of Religion] and whose punishments were less severe than the secular sanctions. Ecclesiastical punishment usually required penance and life-long commitment in support of the church, by the accused. Thusly it is found that social status, economics and religion are definitely underlying factors that have, and continue to have, an influence in corrections philosophy.

  7. QUESTION:
    Do you know of any home remedy for rheumatism ?
    At night I get these sensation on both top of my arms and both legs. It feels like arthritis and I take Alvedon as my pain reliever. Is there no other way to lessen the pain. Besides I am a Diabetic.

    • ANSWER:
      Feature articles on arthritis:
      Exercise prior to hip and knee replacement reduces need for inpatient rehabilitation (press release)
      Osteoarthritis is increasingly common among aging Americans and is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. Exercise is often used in treating osteoarthritis and is an important part in rehabilitation following joint replacement. The level of function prior to knee and hip replacement has been shown...

      Weight training does not increase strength but may slow progression in OA patients (press release)
      Moderate to severe osteoarthritis affects more than 22 million American adults between the ages of 25 and 74 and knee osteoarthritis (OA) can lead to disability in daily activities. Weakness in the quadriceps can be a risk factor for knee OA, but it may be the easiest one to prevent. Previous studies...

      Arthritis drug researchers apologize for undisclosed pharmaceutical industry ties
      (NewsTarget) The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published an apology letter in today's issue from a team of researchers who failed to disclose pharmaceutical industry ties in an arthritis drug study published last May. The study, conducted by Mayo Clinic professor of medicine...

      Acupuncture proven to successfully treat arthritis pain in German study
      (NewsTarget) A study by researchers at Charite University of Medicine in Berlin has found that acupuncture can ease the pain and disability associated with arthritis. The study, published in Arthritis & Rheumatism, looked at 712 patients split into two groups; one group of 357 were given immediate...

      Turmeric extract shows strong anti-inflammatory effect in new study
      (NewsTarget) Turmeric -- a spice most often found in curry dishes -- may help prevent rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis, according to a study by University of Arizona researchers. In a previous study, the researchers found that joint inflammation in rats was reduced by turmeric, and the latest...

      Exercise accelerates recovery from arthritis surgery
      (NewsTarget) A new study published in the October issue of Arthritis Care & Research suggests that weight training and cardiovascular exercise prior to knee- or hip-replacement surgery may reduce the chances of a patient being discharged straight to a rehabilitation center by 73 percent. "The benefits...

      FDA whistleblower warns about safety of new arthritis drug Arcoxia
      (NewsTarget) Associate Director of the FDA's Office of Drug Safety Dr. David Graham is well-known for blowing the whistle on both Merck and his own agency during the Vioxx scandal, and now he is warning the public about another Merck drug called Arcoxia. Like its predecessor, Vioxx -- and its...

      Grace Harbor Farms Goat's Milk Skin Care Cream Relieves Arthritis and Eczema / Psoriasis (press release)
      Grace Harbor Farms (www.graceharborfarms.com) now offers goat’s milk skin care cream that customers report eases pain, softens skin and relieves skin problems like acne, rosacea and eczema. Created by Grace Harbor Farm’s founder Grace Lukens, the cream is made from 100% natural ingredients. "I...

      Soccer Fun Today and Prevent Arthritis Tomorrow (press release)
      With World Cup interest at a fever pitch, and soccer gaining on hockey as a sport of choice among Canadian youth, it's a good time to consider how to prevent the possible future development of osteoarthritis - the most common form of arthritis - due to youth soccer injuries. "Knee injuries are...

      Painkillers tied to risk of erectile dysfunction (press release)
      Regardless of the reason for taking them, painkillers classified as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) apparently increase the likelihood that middle-aged and elderly men will develop erection difficulties, according to a new report. NSAIDs include several widely used drugs, such as...

      Heartburn sufferers shouldn't be too quick to reach for the antacids; heartburn medications do more harm than good
      Before you reach for the antacids to deal with troublesome heartburn, you might want to consider simply changing your eating habits. Most people are aware that eating too quickly or eating certain foods can trigger heartburn, yet few people are willing to change how and what they eat. Instead, they chow...

      Most People With Arthritis Don’t Get Enough Exercise (press release)
      People with arthritis don’t exercise enough, and more than a third of adults with arthritis don’t exercise at all, according to a study in the May issue of American Journal of Preventive Medicine. “People with arthritis are not meeting physical activity recommendations made at the federal level...

      Rheumatoid Arthritis Drug Linked to Serious Infections and Cancers (press release)
      A new meta-analysis of many previous studies of TNF- (tumor necrosis factor) blocking antibodies for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has confirmed a previously discovered increased risk for serious infection and has found that cancer also is a potential risk associated with the drugs. “This study...

      Women's pain and discomfort from premenstrual syndrome may be lessened by diet changes and natural health remedies
      Headaches, bloating, irritability, depression and fatigue are just a few of the unpleasant symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, which affects millions of women every month. But fortunately, PMS -- though widely believed to be a result of changes in hormone levels during a woman's menstrual cycle -- is...

      The great direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising con: how patients and doctors alike are easily influenced to demand dangerous drugs
      A cute, animated ball bounces around very sadly until he takes a magic potion; suddenly, it becomes happier than ever. No, that isn't the plot of a new children's movie. On the contrary, it's the storyline of a Zoloft commercial – yes, Zoloft, a powerful antidepressant drug. In the 1990s, direct-to-consumer...

  8. QUESTION:
    Have you seen a lady that is the color Blue?
    In the 60's a lady in her middle 30's came to the beauty shop each week. She'd recieved treatment for a medical condition that caused her skin to be blue. It wasn't bluish, or sort of blue, it was Blue! She had blond hair which made her look unreal. Has anyone ever seen anything like this and what caused it?
    I saw the blue lady in Memphis, Tn in 1965 at a Cosmetology School. She came each week to have her hair done.

    • ANSWER:
      I have seen this before in an elderly woman from England. In the 1940's through the early 1960's there was a solution that was used for nasal congestion. It was a compound that had "silver" in it. "Over use" of these nasal drops/sprays caused an absorption of the silver into the tissues which caused a bluish pigmentation to the skin as you describe.

      She lived to be a ripe old age so it must not have been too toxic. This was during the time period that the local neighborhood pharmacist compounded many over the counter remedies.

      Many things are readily absorbed through the mucus membranes and gain access into the blood stream to be send throughout the body. The skin can reflect many conditions or diseases. Skin is one of the largest organs of the body. The skin got pigmented permanently...it was an accumulative effect that did not dissipate. Somehow this silver solution probably constricted the swollen nasal passages. There was probably a "rebound effect" that would cause the person to keep using it over and over to keep the nasal airway open at the cost of becoming permanent blue-gray color. I think the condition is called Argyria or Argyrosis if you want to comb the medical journals for some actual pictures of it.

      I wonder if "smurfs" had high silver content in their wells?

  9. QUESTION:
    At what age do babies normally outgrow colic?
    This is my second baby (first one didnt have it).... But I am positive he has colic. I am just curious is there a certain age that they outgrow this or any remedies known??? I've tried everything, But he just goes through a phase in the afternoon where nothing makes him happy :-( He's 2 1/2 weeks old. THANKS

    • ANSWER:
      Colic generally affects babies in the 2 week to 3 month age range. True colicky episodes tend to occur around the same time each day and involve about 2-4 hours of constant crying with nothing working to calm the baby. Visits to the doctor reveal no medical problems. There currently is no universal acknowledged cause of colic and no cure. The best you can do is prepare for the crying jags and work through them as best as possible. Since your baby is only 2 1/2 weeks old, it would be a good idea to have him thoroughly examined by his doctor just to rule out anything amiss. If for the most part he is happy, healthy, and growing with just this bout of crying in the middle of the day than it is most likely colic. Sometimes you have to be creative with trying to find something that will soothe the crying for a bit. One family with a colicky baby used to put him in his bouncer seat on top of the washing machine and run it through the spin cycle. Of course, someone was always right there holding on to the seat so it wouldn't fall off. Another mom I know used to wrap her daughter in to the snuggli so she could get dinner ready for the rest of the family. It was baby #3 for them, so she just let the baby scream while she did what needed to be done. After her husband ate than he'd take the baby for a drive in the car so she could eat, have some peace and quiet plus spend time with the 2 older kids. All the families I personally know with true colicky babies noticed improvement by the time their babies reached 3 months.

  10. QUESTION:
    What diapers should I buy for my 10 year old son?
    My 10 year old son has a weak bladder and wears diapers 24/7. What are the best diapers for him?

    • ANSWER:
      Probably, ATTENDS; Huggies or Pampers. . The large size might be too big for a boy with a small frame.

      But using a diaper is just a band-aid to a problem- esp on a 24/7 basis.

      Bedwetting or nocturnal enuresis is an issue that millions of families face every night. It is extremely common among young kids but can last into the teen years.

      Nocturnal Enuresis, the medical name for bedwetting, is a common problem in kids, especially children under the age of 6 years. About 13% of 6-year-olds wet the bed, while about 5% of 10-year-olds .

      Remind your child to go to the bathroom one final time before bedtime. Try to have your child drink more fluids during the daytime hours and less at night. Fluids given later in the day should not have caffeine. Some parents try waking their kids in the middle of the night to use the bathroom. Many also find that using a motivational system, such as stickers for dry nights with a small reward (such as a book) after a certain number of stickers, can work well. Bedwetting alarms also can be helpful.

      Possible causes:
      1) Besides being a deep sleep disorder, research shows that bedwetting is also genetic. If both parents have a history of bedwetting there is a 77% chance the child will also wet the bed.

      2) Wetting beds or pants can indicate emotional or psychological problem but most of the time; that's not the case. It"s wise (in my opinion) to investigate a medical reason for the problem before delving into the mental aspect of things

      3) Bedwetting is often a sign of insecurity. Your son is at an age where he is probably starting to be more nervous about fitting in at school and keeping up with all the schoolwork and activities, etc. He is probably beginning to mature.

      4) Bedwetting that begins abruptly or is accompanied by other symptoms can be a sign of another medical condition, so talk with your doctor.too, It"s wise (in my opinion) to investigate a medical reason for the problem before delving into the mental aspect of things

      5)The doctor may check for signs of a urinary tract infection (UTI), constipation, bladder problems, or severe STRESS.

      .6) He hasn't learned to accept that he has a body symptom

      6) He may be prepubescent, so close to puberty that there is something changing in his life internally (that can cause a lot of internal jumbling of thoughts and feelings, and new stress in general which the newly growing up adolescentish person won't be able to put into words

      6) I'm not one of those people that think that every behavior and condition means a trip to the Dr. or therapist. But in this instance, I would make an appointment with her pediatrician asap. Excessive nighttime urination is a symptom of juvenile diabetes. I sincerely hope that the problem is nothing serious, but you really need to get her checked outOther symptoms of juvenile diabetes may be excessive thirst, fatigue, and/or hunger, unexplained weight loss

      7) The problem can also be caused by children who sleep extremely heavy/deep sleepers, and they can be deep sleepers due to exhaustion, or may be deep sleepers by nature. but that could dull the signal to wake up to go to the bathroom. kids that are overly tired, usually older children tend to have this problem

      Remedy:

      The doctor might recommend DDVAP, a nose spray (very expensive)or a bed alarm. I have an older bedwetter (who has never been dry) and we use DDVAP on rare occasins, but on a daily basis he wears a night diaper and plastic pants (which he puts on himself). We definetly don't spend any time talking negatively about his bedwetting and make sure he is loved.

      Bedwetting alarms to make him aware that he was wet. Try instituting a no drinking policy after 7 pm (he goes to bed at 8:30. And to definitely go to the bathroom before going to bed.

      Remind your child to go to the bathroom one final time before bedtime. Try to have your child drink more fluids during the daytime hours and less at night. Fluids given later in the day should not have caffeine.

      Many also find that using a motivational system, such as stickers for dry nights with a small reward (such as a book) after a certain number of stickers, can work well.

      A mother employed this method. She simply took away the big pullups, and explained to her son that she was going to help him to not have to wear the embarrassing pull ups anymore, and help him stop needing them. She set aside a few weeks and fully prepared herself to be washing bed linens for weeks to come.

      But instead, within a week or so, her son stopped wetting the bed. Sure, there was an accident or two she said a few months later, but that was it! 99% of the time, he didn't wet the bed. She said that she wasn't sure why it worked.

      Before taking away the pullups, they would wet every night. Why does her method worked? She said that she thinks that they have gotten so good at making the pullups so waterproof, that her son never felt the discomfort of really being wet. And so it did not bother him. Once she took the pull ups away, it bothered him to be all wet, and he became aware that he was wetting the bed.

      She also made sure that he uses the bathroom before bedtime.

      Some parents try waking their kids in the middle of the night to use the bathroom

  11. QUESTION:
    What type of food (and hearing exercises) can better your hearing?
    A while back, I had experience a few incidents that disrupted my ears and I want to ask if anyone know ways I can better my hearing? I already know how to prevent my hearing from getting worse.
    Please send a logical answer.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm an Audiologist.

      I would really need a better explanation of what you mean by "a few incidents that disrupted my ears" -- can you please add details?

      Our ears have three sections, the outer ear which is the visible area and the canal up to the eardrum; the middle ear, which is the air-filled space behind the eardrum, including the eardrum itself, and the bones that are attached to it; and the inner ear, which consists of the cochlea which is the organ of hearing, and the labyrinth, which is the organ of balance. Those inner ear organs stimulate the VIIIth cranial nerve to send auditory and equilibrium information to the brain.

      Sound is a vibration that travels through the air, to our eardrum, which then travels along the chain of ossicles (bones) and then into the cochlea. Inside the cochlea are fluids that the vibrations travel through, resulting in the movement of microscopic hair cells. When those hair cells vibrate, they trigger the nerve to fire. As the sound information travels up into the brain, it gets processed and we react to it - whether instinctively (e.g. head turn to a loud bang), or consciously (e.g. speaking to respond to someone else's voice) or both.

      The most easily treated type of hearing loss is called a conductive hearing loss, which occurs when the sound vibrations are not being conducted through the outer and middle ears effectively. This can be due to wax build-up or an infection in the ear canal, fluid buildup or an infection behind the eardrum, damage to the eardrum or ossicles, or thickening of the eardrum or ossicles. Some of these are remedied easily, some require medication, and other require surgery, which may not be able to fully restore the hearing.

      When the outer and middle ear are clear, but the deficiency is in the inner ear or along the nerve, the hearing loss is known as "sensorineural" and is usually permanent. Damage to the inner ear hair cells is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss. The hair cells are very sensitive to metabolic changes and very oxygen dependent. Sometimes, a person can inherit delicate hair cells so they experience a gradual loss with age, some medical conditions and treatments can cause them to break, and of course, exposure to loud sounds can break them off.

      If the nerves and brain are no able to effectively process the sound, there is a central hearing loss or a central auditory processing disorder.

      Generally good health, especially cardiovascular and metabolic maintenance, good nutrition and hydration, and minimizing or avoiding noise exposure are all you can do to preserve your hearing sensitivity. If you have hearing loss a comprehensive audiological evaluation to determine the nature and degree of the loss, and an otological evaluation to determine if there are any medical options. If you have trouble processing what you hear, there are strategies you can learn to help you compensate for those difficulties.

  12. QUESTION:
    How do I get rid of toe cramp?
    i get toe cramp pretty much everyday and it is really painful. From what most people say it happens to swimmers and the elderly but i am 14 and don't swim. Sometimes i wake up in the middle of the night with toe cramp and it takes ages to die down.

    What causes toe cramp?
    What can i do to get rid of it when i have it?
    Is there any ways of getting rid of it permanently e.g. change of diet ect?

    • ANSWER:
      The usual culprit is ill-fitting shoes that are tighter than they should be in the toe area. High heels are especially problematic. Cramps are also attributed to a calcium deficiency so you may want to check that you're eating enough dairy foods, fish with tiny bones (such as salmon, anchovies and sardines) and drinking enough milk. Toe cramps tend to rear their ugly heads when feet have been confined to shoes for hours. Athletes also suffer from them and find that sports massage can be very beneficial. Yoga newbies are surprised when they find that the very exercise that should keep their bodies supple causes pain and discomfort.

      What can you do about them-
      Well, for starters, you can avoid wearing high heels, to work at least; save them for special occasions. They've never been good for foot health anyway and they contribute to a bad back. Whenever possible during the day, you should try to remove your shoes and exercise your feet, even if under your desk or on the bus or train. It helps to promote circulation by moving your ankles around in a circular movement, bending and flexing your feet and shaking each leg in turn as you go about your work.

      If your toe cramps are persistent and you find you're experiencing them on a regular basis, your physician can examine your feet and see what medical solutions are left that you may not have thought of to relieve the problem. It's unlikely that surgery would be recommended for toe cramps.

      Homeopathic remedies may be of benefit since a holistic approach will take into consideration any deficiencies in calcium or potassium, another known factor in toe cramps. Accupressure and reflexology are also worth considering. During the treatment, you may experience moderate to severe pain but the nerves that send the message of pain to the brain will ease off afterwards.

      Toe cramps aren't the most pleasant affliction but they don't signify any major health concern. Exercising adequately and eating well, including plenty of potassium and calcium rich foods can make a difference.

      Exercises-
      To alleviate toe cramps, you can do special exercises designed to strengthen the muscles. Try standing on tiptoes and raising your body up and then down repeatedly, using your toes to support you. Hold each position for five seconds. Another good one is to pick up marbles with your toes and relocate them to another spot on the floor. Walking on sand strengthens toes, massages feet and exfoliates the skin … a great workout for feet!

  13. QUESTION:
    How can I get rid of tough zits?
    I have 3 zits in the middle of my eyebrows and no matter what i do, they won't go away! I've put rubbing alcohol on it, i've scrub it many time with facial pads, i'll use facial masks, i have this special zit cream, and i do all these daily! the most it ever does is shrink down a little. But then when i wake up the next day, they are back to their grown size! Please help they've been on my face for like 4 months. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Throughout history, a face full of acne has been a self-imposed death sentence on dating. At about age 12, just when boys and girls are starting to get really interested in each other, their faces sprout technicolor pimples, and they stick around for five years or more – which feels like forever. (Some people do have it forever.) Medical science doesn’t have a clue as to what causes it. Acne comes in a number of forms. The most common type, Acne Vulgaris, may be mild or moderate and feature blackheads, whiteheads, papules, or pustules. nodules, or cysts:

      1. Whiteheads: Pores get completely blocked by sebum (oil), bacteria, and dead skin cells. The combination looks white on the skin’s surface. Though these things are tempting to squeeze, it’s generally better to leave any kind of acne eruption untouched. But if you must squeeze or pop one, make certain your hands are clean and that you mop the site afterward to remove any residue. The bacteria inside any kind of pimple can spread infection to create new pimples nearby. It helps to use a sterile needle to nick a pimple before squeezing it with sterile gauze pads.
      2. Blackheads: When a whitehead is only partially blocked, contents slowly drain to the surface, where the natural pigment in the dead skin cells reacts with oxygen to turn black.
      3. Papules: Red, tender bumps with no head.
      4. Pustules (the classic zit): An inflamed red circle with a white or yellow center.

      Severe Acne vulgaris displays nodules, large, hard bumps under the skin's surface, and cysts, nodules filled with pus.
      Which Acne Treatment To Choose?
      physicianSevere acne of any type, including Acne Rosacea, which usually occurs over the age of 30, Acne Conglobata, Acne Fulminans, Gram-Negative folliculitis, and Pyoderma Faciale should be treated by a physician. Anti-bacterials and other medications needed to treat some of these require a physician’s prescription. Over the years, various creams, ointments, washes, pills, and dietary treatments have been tried in the battle against acne. They have included Retin-A, sulfur, 2% salicylic acid pads, clindamycin and sulfur, resorcinol, adapalene, erythromycin, azelaic acid, isotretinoin, tetracycline, doxycline, minocycline, oral contraceptives, tazarotene, sodium sulfacetamide, blue light treatment, and red light treatment, all with no consistent success and the last two being extremely expensive. Various folk and home remedies have proven worthless to some and invaluable to others.
      How to Get Rid of Those Zits
      Daniel Kern, owner of the site, Acne.org, recommends a simple treatment for acne. He discovered it and reports that he and others have used it with great success. It involves over-the-counter products that cost very little. Its three-step process that is followed twice a day, preferably with the treatments 12 hours apart:

      1. Gently wash the affected areas. The operative word here is “gently,” as it’s a proven fact that rough treatment of an infected area will only spread the infection. Your aim here is to remove body oils to allow the medication used in the second step better penetrate infected pores. Use a mild soap with warm – not hot, not cold – water and use your bare hands, not a washcloth. DO NOT IRRITATE YOUR SKIN. Rinse gently and pat (not rub) dry.
      2. Apply 2% benzoil peroxide cream from the tube. This is available at any drug store. Neutrogena On-the-Spot is one such product. Kern sells his own product on-line from his site. When you begin using it, start with a small amount, what you think would be the minimum amount to cover the area. Over the next two weeks, you will be increasing the amount used until it’s double the amount you started with. Be careful to avoid the area around your eyes.
      3. Wash your hands and apply a moisturizing lotion, a little less than the amount of benzoil peroxide cream you used. Benzoil peroxide works by drying up the oils that block pores. But it also dries your skin, making it flaky and itchy. The moisturizing lotion counteracts this.

  14. QUESTION:
    What are 5 unusual medical remedies in the middle ages?
    Hey, plz help its a homework question!!!???

    • ANSWER:
      One that was not listed was trepanning...drilling holes in the skull to release evil thoughts or demons.

  15. QUESTION:
    How did Jane addams ideas and other ideas of the progressive movement spread across America in that era?

    • ANSWER:
      Jane Addams strove to remedy a worsening social problem—class inequality—by providing the poor with a range of social services at Hull House, the old Chicago mansion that Addams converted into America's first "settlement house." Addams's work there inspired a broad settlement house movement in many American cities. The settlements ultimately did not solve the crisis of poverty or end the exploitation of the working poor, but Addams's work nonetheless epitomized some of the best aspects of Progressivism and had a powerful effect on not only the poor people who benefited from the services she provided, but also on a new generation of middle-class reformers.

      Inspired by the first settlement house established a few years earlier at Toynbee Hall in East London, Addams and her friend Ellen Gates Starr built the first American settlement house in 1889. They converted Chicago's old Hull mansion into a space designed to bring middle-class reformers into direct contact with the underclasses, to foster closer ties between classes and to allow the reformers to offer support and guidance to the urban poor. The movement soon took hold; by 1897, some 74 settlement houses were established in cities across America, most of them run by women. By 1920, there were almost 500 settlement houses in the country.33 College-age volunteers (primarily from the middle- and upper-classes) established libraries, playgrounds, and clubs for poor adults and children. The settlements were used as nurseries, employment bureaus, theaters, art galleries, cafeterias, libraries, and gymnasiums, among other functions. These radically new living experiments made connections across traditional boundaries that had kept Americans divided: class, language, religion, gender, age, race, and cultural differences between residents and volunteers were at least partially transcended. Some settlement house residents joined up with volunteer workers in promoting Progressive causes like child labor laws, compulsory school attendance, industrial safety, worker's rights, municipal sanitation improvements, and women's suffrage.

      In 1899, Hull House resident Julia Lathrop united forces with Addams to help persuade the Illinois state legislature to establish the first juvenile court in the United States. Florence Kelley, another Hull House resident, was a divorced mother of three who went on to become the secretary of the National Consumer's League, which organized boycotts—primarily led by women—to pressure businesses that exploited workers. Alice Hamilton also lived at Hull House; she became a pioneer of industrial medicine and the first female professor at Harvard Medical School.

      Progressive-era social critics and reformers advised that young men should engage in vigorous physical activity as an "outlet" for their energies (and sexual desires). Addams took these ideas and applied them to young women (albeit without the sexual undertone); she argued that girls must be free to act on their Progressive principles, or they would "dissipate their energies in so-called enjoyment" or become "buried beneath this mental accumulation."38 She also infused her message with elements of Christian messianism, describing the settlement house movement as a manifestation of "the impulse to share the lives of the poor, the desire to make social service, irrespective of propaganda, express the spirit of Christ."39 Many settlement house volunteers, including hundreds of black women, went on to serve as some of the country's first professional social workers. Women composed about half of all social workers by 1910, and 62% of the profession by 1920.40 Addams helped to create the modern social work profession and to bolster it as a respectable line of work for young women in an age where few such professions existed.

  16. QUESTION:
    what exactly is vertigo in terms of a medical term?
    i have vertigo. i know is some type of dizziness i had it when i was teenager now it came back . what causes that? and do i need some type of treatment? i already ate some pills that the doctor gave me

    • ANSWER:
      Vertigo is a disease which is often incorrectly confused with dizziness. It is actually related to problems in the inner ear, where the balance centers are located, although this is not the only reason.

      Influenza, Head injury, certain medications, Diseases like Ménière’s disease, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, sinusitis, panic attacks, migraine headaches, and problems with metabolism, such as hypothyroidism, high blood triglycerides, diabetes, and hypoglycemia etc. are some of the reasons why you may get vertigo attacks.

      Medications such as Benadryl or Valium may either be taken orally, with a skin patch or given through an IV. If vertigo is caused as a result of a bacterial infection of the middle ear, antibiotics may be administered. More severe episodes of vertigo may also require surgery.
      Natural remedies provide excellent symptomatic relief for dizziness and nausea associated with vertigo and improve inner ear balance. Herbal remedies containing homeopathic ingredients may be taken at the first sign of symptoms and are safe to use for people of all ages.

      Homeopathic ingredients such as Cocculus indicus, Lobelia inflata and Gelsemium have proven to highly effective in relieving the symptoms of dizziness, weakness, fainting, fatigue, headaches and emotional upsets. In addition, Bryonia alba may be beneficial for headaches, and for individuals who perspire where the slightest movement may be disturbing.

      You may get more info here http://www.healthherbsandnutrition.com/remedies/v/vertigo.htm

  17. QUESTION:
    From your personal experience, what's the best method to get rid of Acne Scarring?
    My acne scars aren't really light, but they're not really bad either. They're definitely in the middle.
    I am thinking of getting laser skin resurfacing done in a few months after my skin clears up a bit and there's just the scars left, but I don't know a whole lot about it. I don't want there to be a chance of my scars getting worse.
    I'm not looking to get into microdermabrasion because I've seen a lot of cases with it and the treatment almost does nothing for acne scars.

    Any help is appreciated

    • ANSWER:
      Hi souper.gloo,

      If you are seeking acne scar treatment, you should be well
      informed of the various methods of acne scar treatment and what
      they involve before proceeding with any treatment. You should
      also bear in mind that the success of acne scar treatment is
      dependent on various other factors besides the type and severity
      of the acne scars.

      You should consult a dermatologist who will take into account
      your age, overall health and medical history. He will also
      discuss with you your tolerance for specific medications,
      procedures or therapies and even budget. He will then be able to
      recommend some options taking into consideration your opinion or
      preference.

      There are many types of treatment for acne scars which include
      inexpensive non-surgical and the considerably more costly
      surgical procedures. Depending on the condition of the scars,
      you may want to try non-surgical treatment first before seeking
      more drastic treatment such as laser treatment.

      Acne Scar Creams and Lotions - Acne scar treatment products
      contain skin renewal activators and biological enzymes that
      gently dissolve or "digest" the damaged or worn out cells.

      Laser Treatment - Laser treatment uses a high-energy light beam
      to remove layers of damaged skin. This form of treatment is
      expensive and multiple treatments are often required.

      Dermabrasion - An abrasive instrument similar to an electric
      sander is used to resurface the skin by removing the top layer.

      Microdermabrasion - Microdermabrasion removes only the very
      surface cells of the skin by using aluminium oxide crystals
      passing through a vacuum tube to remove surface skin.

      Collagen injections - A type of collagen derived from the
      purified bovine collagen is injected beneath the skin to replace
      the natural collagen of the body lost in the acne condition.

      Autologous Fat Transfer (AFT) - Fat is taken from another part
      of your own body and injected in the acne scar skin to fill the
      holes left by acne scars.

      Steroid Injections - In this acne scar treatment surgery,
      elevated scars (keloids) are flattened by injecting small doses
      of steroids into the keloids.

      Chemical Peels - A special chemical is applied on the top of
      the skin and left there for several minutes after which it will
      be removed together with the top layer of skin.

      Punch Grafts - Small portions of skin are taken from one part
      of your body and implanted into the deep-seated scars.

      Home Made Remedies - Advocates of natural home made acne scar
      treatment recommend various remedies such as applying a clove of
      raw garlic or mint juice, and a variety of natural oils on acne
      scars.

      While many of these acne scar treatments have reported success
      for many individuals, for others, it is likely that a
      combination of these various forms of acne scar treatment may be
      required to be tested.

      Also, acne scar sufferers must manage their expectations of
      success. Non of these treatments offer overnight success in
      getting rid of acne scars. Time is an important factor in the
      healing and tissue remodelling process where visible results
      will be apparent only after a considerable period of time.

      For more information about acne scar removal, please refer to the site below :

  18. QUESTION:
    Which factor had the most significant effect on medieval attitudes to medicine?
    some factors
    -Religion
    -The Black Death
    -Galen
    -Trade and communications
    -Natural remedies

    • ANSWER:
      I would say Religion.

      With the cessation of the Viking invasions, the people of Europe
      were able to spend time in activities other than those exclusively
      associated with survival. Thus learning and the development of
      the arts was allowed to flourish. Schools and universities were
      established. The Catholic Church made its presence felt in all
      facets of medieval life, and monastic and religious orders became
      the order of the day. With the development of the towns came
      craft specialization and so guilds and Mercantile law were
      conceived. It was during this time that "barber-surgeons," "book
      doctors" and "cutting-doctors" were officially sought for advice
      and cures in matters of health. What then can we learn from
      the evidence available on medieval people and their medical
      practices

      Hospitals were only built towards the end of the High
      Middle Ages. Medical practice therefore occurred at the home
      of the patient and had to conform to social ideals. Illness was
      largely believed to be a punishment from God and so confession
      of sin was always the first option in attaining healing. The
      relationship between the sick person and the doctor, especially in
      the cases of women, was governed strictly by the belief in the
      need for patient privacy. Doctors seldom, if ever, actually
      examined female patients, and birthing procedures were carried
      out via a dividing curtain which separated the doctor from the
      mother. He was not allowed to look at the woman

      The rites of passage into birth and death were governed by the
      Church. Death was considered to be a public event and the
      patient, aware of this, conformed to public expectations. There
      were good deaths and bad deaths. Good deaths occurred when
      the patient, aware that he was at the end, would call for a priest
      who would provide the Holy Sacraments. Having partaken, the
      patient would ask forgiveness of any sin from both those present
      and God. He was then expected to depart quietly from this
      world. A bad death happened if someone was murdered, or died
      suddenly or with much writhing and shouting. These people
      were deemed to proceed immediately to hell

      Not only did the Church decide how best to administer
      treatments and to whom they should be administered but who
      could study medicine. A would-be physician had to be of
      legitimate birth but could receive a special dispensation if he was
      not. The candidate had to turn to an honourable general
      practitioner and become his apprentice. Specialisation of any
      sort was discouraged. Doctors had become so much an accepted
      part of society that failure to consult one on issues of health was
      considered a sin. If a doctor's operation was unsuccessful it was
      considered to be the doctor's fault and he was completely liable
      to recompense the patient or the deceased's family. This did
      retard the growth of medicine, as doctors were justifiably afraid
      to try any new techniques, or even any surgery at all. Perhaps
      the movements in First World countries today to ensure patients
      rights to sue at the hint of any malpractice will have the same
      retarding effect on modern medical advancement

      Medieval theology took a very strong standpoint on the
      doctor-patient relationship and the question of a fee. Doctors
      were to treat the poor free of charge and to supply medicines at
      their own expense. Patients were to be treated even if it was
      against their wishes. The physician's duty was to tell the patient
      in complete honesty the truth about his condition, thus enabling
      the patient to confess in case he/she didn't live. In 1215 Pope
      Boniface III prohibited any practices on the part of a doctor, such
      as extra-marital sex, alcoholic intoxication and disobeying the
      commandments regarding fasting, which might endanger the
      healing of the soul of the patient.

      Medieval clinics were really established from about the
      twelfth century onwards, and this can be attributed to a number
      of factors. European society was becoming more affluent and
      thus had the funds to build health-care institutions. Due to the
      prevailing peace and improved nourishment there was a
      population explosion. The result was increased contact between
      people in the towns, and thus the spread of infectious disease,
      and therefore the need for these clinics. "Hospitales" were built
      by the Church as the laity became more involved in humane
      affairs. Civic groups pledged funds for the upkeep of the
      hospitals. These hospitals were accessible to both the privileged
      and the poor alike.

      The most noteworthy aspect of the European hospitals was their
      religious orientation which deemed care of the soul more
      important than the care of the body. Patrons, patients and lay
      attendants were all united by common devotional exercises which
      aimed at their mutual salvation. Due to the pre-eminence of
      religious fervour in these hospitals, few were attended by any
      resident physicians. They were largely called in on a
      consultative basis. It was only in the eighteenth century that the
      value of a resident qualified medical staff was entrenched within
      the system, and in actual fact it was the medieval Islamic world
      who perfected the care of the sick by trained physicians.

      In times of plague and leprosy - victims or even suspected sufferers were banned from entering many towns.

      Many sought refige in hospices set up by monks or religeous orders.

      This allowed for a certain body of knowledge - wether correct or fanciful to be established.

      But the illness was atributed to sin
      and recovery by repentance.

  19. QUESTION:
    Are there any actual wiccan spells that have worked for someone?
    I was just curious.

    • ANSWER:
      Look at the lives of these famous occultists, and then decide if it "works":

      Henry Cornielius Agrippa von Nettesheim: One of the most famous occultists of the middle ages. His work has gone on to inspire hundreds of "magical" books and writings. Despite all his occult knowledge, he died in poverty at age 41 in 1532.

      Cagliostro, a famous French-Egyptian "magician", did the most embarrassing things, like putting a teacup on his erect penis and telling women "This is the only Bishop you will bow to!" He died in the Bastille in 1795.

      John Dee discovered Enochian Magick and tried unsuccessfully to get the spirits to bring him money. He spent the final years of his life stripped of his honors and income and was forced to live incommunicado. He died in extreme poverty at 81.

      Paracelsus: Thought himself a great physician, but he was really just an alchemist who had bizarre theories about human anatomy and prescribed dangerous remedies for his patients. This man was said to be arrogant and conceited, and was shunned by the other medical experts of his day. He died broke at the age of 48.

      Edward Kelly: An assistant of Dee, after failing to strike it rich with Enochian Magick, he was killed trying to escape prison. He had been imprisoned for his old hobby, counterfeiting.

      Aleister Crowley had a nervous breakdown and spent 4 months in an insane asylum after trying to conjure a demon in a Paris hotel. In 1947 he died impoverished in a flophouse, forgotten by his family, a drug addict and alcoholic, despite starting out in life as a rich heir to Crowley Ale. He squandered it all on drugs and whores.
      "Success is your proof!" - -Liber Al Vel Legis 3:46, Aleister Crowley

      Gurdijef was a Russian con man who got involved in many money making scams. Once he dyed sparrows in peroxide and sold them as canaries! Even his biographers admit he had a "streak of charaltainism" about him. He created a system of bunk psychotherapy which is convoluted and even people who practice it can't clearly explain what is. In other words, it was the forerunner of Scientology.

      Christian Rosenkrutz never actually existed. The whole Rosicrucian thing was started as a joke to make fun of occultists by a Lutheran minister named Valentin Andrea.

      The Fox Sisters started the whole spiritist/seance’ movement in 1840. Years later they confessed the whole thing had been a hoax, but no one wanted to listen.

      Samuel "Macgregor" Mathers: Eventually all the members of the Golden Dawn figured out Mathers lied about the secret chiefs, which led to him being kicked out, & the Golden Dawn being disbanded. He died in poverty from pneumonia in 1918.

      Jack Parsons blew himself up in his basement, making nitroglycerin, which he sold on the black market to supplement his income (apparently his money spells didn't work, either.)

      Pamela Coleman Smith painted the illustrations for Arthur Edward Waite's tarot deck, one of the most popular decks being used today. She died penniless and alone in a London flat.

      Paschal Beverly Randolph inspired people like Aleister Crowley, the members of the O.:T.:O.:., and Henri Gamache. His books are still in print. He committed suicide at age 44, leaving his wife and son to live in poverty.

      They couldn't make the occult work, neither can anyone else.

      Here's a quote from Wiccan Tradition Head Silver Ravenwolf:

      "For years I couldn't afford to go to a hair stylist (still can't, it's shop and chop for me). I got pretty good at styling my own hair from looking at magazine pictures."
      [SOURCE: Teen Witch, Llewellyn Publications, 2003 edition, page 145]

      She also wrote a book about Prosperity spells. Does she sound like she can make it work? She can't even afford a hairdresser! My wife just spent 0 at the beauty parlor and we're far from rich.

      Here's another quote from that same book:

      "A lot of people tell me how bad their lives have gotten after casting a spell and tell me they won't do Witchcraft anymore. I tell them their lives would have been much worse for not having cast the spell."

      If you want to really have a good life, ditch the occult.

  20. QUESTION:
    Why did physicians in the Middle Ages seem to think that leeches were a miracle cure?

    • ANSWER:
      The practice of “bloodletting” lost its popular in the early 1900’s. It was seen as an old and outdated procedure that had no benefit to the patient. By the early 1920’s, the practice of “bloodletting” was almost never used. It was not until the mid 1980’s that we would see the return of these small blood-sucking creatures.

      In 1986, Dr. Charles Lent of Utah State University reported in the journal Nature that leeches can be useful after the transplantation and reattachment of tissues. Lent reported that leeches can help to restore normal blood flow in certain damaged parts of the body. Basically, leeches can help because they have a natural anticoagulant (a substance that prevents blood from clotting and forming scabs) in their saliva. When leeches attach to the skin, they can help repair the venous (veins are part of your circulatory system and are where the blood flows through on the way back to your heart) system in the damaged area. Once normal venous flow is restored in the damaged area of the body, the leech can be removed. Some surgeons now occasionally use these little creatures to help with certain procedures. So, the next time you see a picture of a leech, don’t scream and yell “Yuck”. These little creatures can actually help us.

      Leeches in ancient and modern medicine.

      For over 4000 years, the leech has been a familiar remedy, with Greek and Roman physicians praising the application of this clever invertebrate.

      In the 19th century leeches were enjoying a golden age. Millions were raised for medical use as their fame as a cure-all ensued. The mid 1800s saw their constant use for local bloodletting. Druggists administered thousands of leeches to patients with anything from gumboils to facial discolouration.

      http://www.leeches.biz/medicine-leech.htm

  21. QUESTION:
    Did a royal invent Gin or was it the monks?
    Was a Gin invented for/ by a royal or did a monk invent it? I know Queen Elizabeth II and the Queen mother both liked a Gin, was this due to a royal association or they just like the taste?

    • ANSWER:
      By the 11th century, Italian monks were flavoring crudely distilled spirits with juniper berries. During the Black Death, this drink was used, although ineffectively, as a remedy. As the science of distillation advanced from the Middle Ages into the Renaissance period, juniper was one of many botanicals employed by virtue of its perfume, flavour, and purported medicinal properties.
      The Dutch physician Franciscus Sylvius is credited with the invention of gin. By the mid 17th century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers (some 400 in Amsterdam alone by 1663) had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or wine with juniper, anise, caraway, coriander, etc.,which were sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical problems as kidney ailments, lumbago, stomach ailments, gallstones, and gout. It was found in Holland by English troops who were fighting against the Spanish in the Eighty Years' War who noticed its calming effects before battle, which is the origin of the term Dutch courage.[citation needed] Gin emerged in England in varying forms as of the early 17th century, and at the time of the Restoration, enjoyed a brief resurgence. When William of Orange, ruler of the Dutch Republic, occupied the British throne with his wife Mary in what has become known as the Glorious Revolution, gin became vastly more popular, particularly in crude, inferior forms, where it was more likely to be flavoured with turpentine as an alternative to juniper.

  22. QUESTION:
    Maine has tried Government run Health Care and it has failed badly! Can someone tell me why?
    0bama and Crew want to shove the same chitty plan down our throats?

    • ANSWER:
      There are so many completely unfounded statements being made concerning healthcare reform. People do not really understand why our healthcare system is in the poor state that it is, and see any alternative as a better solution. Without really understanding why healthcare is where it is how can anyone really understand where the policies of this administration will take us.

      Those that support a government takeover of the healthcare system (and that is what is happening) do so for the reasons stated below, but these reasons are false!

      The untrue statements are:
      ·Insurance companies are driving up insurance costs
      ·We have higher death rates in the US than other developed nations
      ·
      Here are some of the facts, sorry it is so long but there is no short answer :

      Listed Below Are The Causes Of Healthcare Cost: It is Not The Insurance Companies Escalating Prices!

      Prescription Drugs

      ·This year has seen a decline in the number of brand name drugs scheduled to move to generic or over the counter, this means higher prescription costs.

      ·It is expected this year to see a 21% rise in the cost of specialty drugs. For example cancer drugs or drugs for MS.

      ·Since 1997 the cost of prescription drugs have grown each year two and a half times faster than the rate of inflation.
      The expanding use of technology

      ·Since 1997 the number of CT scans performed in the U.S has doubled and the number of MRI scans has tripled. This increase is largely due to defensive medicine.

      Preventable care:

      ·Currently nearly 40% of the U.S population is officially obese.

      ·The obese population spends 77% more on prescription drugs than those of normal weight.

      ·The rise in obesity has caused the prevalence of diabetes to double in recent years.

      America's Demographics:

      ·The number of medical procedures, operations and tests performed each year will continue to rise as the baby boomer generation continues to push through middle age.

      ·State regulations and mandates imposed on insurance companies drives health insurance premiums up by 22% - 53%.

      These causes are just a few of the many causes that are the driving forces behind the cost of healthcare in the U.S. and are at the root of our healthcare crisis. These problems can only be solved with more effective public health and education systems. Our education system must begin to teach the importance of a healthy diet and exercise and our public health system needs to encourage more natural remedies wherever possible. The point is we need to be moving the U.S in the direction of more natural and healthy lifestyles. For too long we have demanded instant gratification, a quick fix to every problem. We see that in fast food, weigh loss drugs, liposuction, drugs to improve sexual performance, drugs to correct high blood pressure which was caused in the first place by a bad diet and a lack of exercise, the list goes on and on and now we are having to deal with the consequences of our decisions.

      Insurance Cost Trends:

      The escalating cost of health insurance is a concern for everyone, to solve this problem we need to know what are the major contributors to this problem. In 2007 National healthcare spending reached .2 trillion

      This is a breakdown of hospital medical services and does not include professional services, which would be additional charges.

      ·The average cost of a day in a hospital is over 00
      ·Care for a burst appendix is over ,000
      ·Knee ligament surgery is over ,000
      ·A yearly supply of Lipitor is over ,400
      ·An average emergency room visit is over ,000

      In 2007, PricewaterhouseCoopers completed a study to ascertain what factors where pushing medical cost up. The study reported that out of every medical insurance premium dollar [FAQ-ANSWER].87 was spent on medical services, drugs, medical equipment and other medical products.

      Hospitals and doctors combined received more than two thirds of every medical insurance premium dollar.

      Out of every premium dollar:

      ·Doctors received 33%
      ·Hospitals received 20%
      ·Outpatient services received 15%
      ·Prescription drugs cost 14%
      ·Insurance company's' retained 13% for administration costs, marketing, taxes, compliance and profit
      ·Other medical services 5%

      This clearly indicates that healthcare reform will fail unless the government has more of a focus on reducing healthcare costs, rather than health insurance reform.

      Therefore insurance companies retain 13% of every dollar for administration, marketing, salaries, overhead, and profit.

      Another Untruth is that in the USA we have lower survival rates than other nations.

      Throughout the healthcare debate, we have heard proponents of the government run healthcare option declare that America is not getting value for its healthcare dollars. The measure they continue to use to argue this point is life expectancy for Americans, stating that life expectancy in the US lags all other developed nations. Bu

  23. QUESTION:
    List of medieval alchemical remedies?
    I've looked EVERYWHERE for a list of potions, remedies, cures, or ingredients of Medieval Alchemy, but I can't find a single one! All the pages I've found are either about World of Warcraft, or they just tell you about alchemy, instead of giving examples of potions. Does anyone know a website that can help me?

    • ANSWER:
      There's Paracelsus, but he's from the sixteenth century (i.e. a little after the end of the Middle Ages). The association between alchemy and medicine mostly seems to come from him.

      http://www.levity.com/alchemy/paracel1.html

      If it's just medieval medical recipes in general you're looking for, you could look at the eleventh-century Anglo-Saxon treatises. You can find the nineteenth-century edition online here. Keep in mind that Cockayne's preface is well out of date and some of his translations of plant names have been questioned in the last hundred years.
      http://www.archive.org/stream/leechdomswortcun02cock#page/n11/mode/2up

      Here's a more recent edition of one of the treatises:
      http://books.google.ca/books?id=ITxsaqEmVHAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

      There's also this treatise on women's health from later medieval England.
      http://books.google.ca/books?id=CboOAAAAQAAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA59#v=onepage&q&f=false

      If you read other languages, there are more medical treatises from other parts of Europe, but I didn't find them in English translation on a quick sweep through the internet.

  24. QUESTION:
    What are some natural treatments for a child with ADHD?
    My 6yr old son has recently been diagnosed with ADHD and i would prefer to treat him for it naturally. I have heard that omega 3 is helpful...

    • ANSWER:
      I am a 23 year old with life-long ADHD. I agree with the person who said coffee causes the reverse for people with ADHD. Stimulants (like Ritalin and Adderrall) are used to control ADHD, and caffiene is a very mild stimulant. But it barely works and the effect is very short-term (maybe an hour at most). I just use it in a pinch, like if I have a big test or something, because I can't afford medication now. However, I don't think coffee is such a good idea for a 6 year old.

      Really, I don't think there are any good natural remedies. Forget all the diet stuff-- that might make a negligible difference, but to seriously control ADHD I believe meds are necessary. Simulant medication works best, but there are safer alternatives. Straterra is a great once-daily pill. I worked good for me, and it has no stimulant effects. Your son wouldn't even notice a difference.... but you would.

      My mother was similiar and always opposed medication. She was trying to do the right thing, but looking back I wish she had gotten me medication. It would have helped me a lot in school. People think ADHD is an "excuse", but it can be seriously debilitating. However, at age 6 I agree that meds can wait. Plus, unless ADHD is heriditary in your family, ADHD is hard to diagnose at that young of an age. Some doctors are quick to use that tag, and it turns out to be something else. But if all the signs remain by middle or high school, then I hope you're to put him on medication if that's what he wants. He'll thank you for it when he's my age. It is possible to successful with ADHD (I'm about to enter law school myself now, with only 6 months of my life spent on meds) but it is definitely a lot more of a struggle in school. That's where good support (like you) and good medical treatment will make a big difference.

  25. QUESTION:
    What's something I can do at home to get rid of strechmarks.?
    I have streachmarks on my inner thighs && some on my arms. &' breast. I hate them. Is there anything I can do at home for free to make the less visible or gone.?

    • ANSWER:
      Stretch mark
      removal can be very effective with
      a quality stretch marks cream. Stretch marks are a
      well-known skin
      problem, which
      causes
      considerable
      distress to those that have them
      and can be
      removed with a
      natural skin care
      treatment, stretch
      mark cream, laser treatment or stretch mark surgery. Some have even
      visited Mayo clinic, to effectively heal the
      appearance of skin scars. Stretch marks are actually linear scars, which affect a thin layer of the skin and are the consequence of
      a rapid stretching of the skin. This is associated
      with, and occurs during pregnancy, so pregnant
      women, watch out. It is also associated with
      obesity, i.e. because of weight gain over time,
      puberty growth spurts or any other fast weight gain that can happen with men weightlifters and
      body builders. When stretch marks first appear they are purple or
      reddish lines. However they fade with age and
      eventually turn silver in color. The areas of the skin
      affected look empty and are soft to touch. When searching for stretch marks treatment to heal
      stretch marks, it’s important to know that the layer
      of skin that needs to be treated actually has three
      layers, the epidermis which is the top layer, the
      dermis or middle layer and the subcutaneous
      stratum, which is the inner layer. The dermis is responsible for helping skin keep its shape. When
      the skin is stretched over a period of time, it
      becomes less elastic, so that the dermis loses its
      support causing dermal and epidermal tearing,
      what we call stretch marks. And there is a stretch
      marks cream that works extremely well for this. Stretch marks usually appear in the areas of the
      body where the highest amounts of fat are stored
      (i.e. during pregnancy and maternity, when having
      a new baby) and the most common areas are the
      stomach, upper arms, breasts, underarms, hips,
      buttocks and the inner and outer thighs. A quality stretch marks cream can handle all of this and
      more. Get Rid Of Stretch Marks With A Stretch Marks Cream? There are various options when it comes to treating
      stretch marks. If you are really serious about
      getting rid of stretch marks, it’s probably best to
      use a guaranteed-effective stretch mark cream for
      stretch mark removal or to be under the care of a
      dermatologist or surgeon or who can advise what your best options are. He or she can take a
      comprehensive medical history, including
      medications that you are taking. It is a fact that
      some medications, like steroids and hormones, may
      cause this, so it is important that you are honest
      with your doctor. There are skin care surgical methods, like chemical
      peels and dermabrasion, which may be used to
      tackle unwanted stretch marks, and recently there
      have been many new advances in laser surgery.
      The amount of success of any stretch mark removal
      treatment will be influenced by your skin tone, age, and even diet. Insurance coverage does not usually
      extend to stretch marks removal, even if they are
      severe, as this is a cosmetic procedure. Stretch Mark Removal There is a good deal of over-the-counter
      treatments to prevent stretch marks skin problem.
      These include Vitamin E oil, stretch mark removal
      cream, coconut oil, butter lotion, olive oil remedy,
      aloe Vera, cocoa butter… Bio-oil stretch mark
      removal may be one such specially prepared home remedy formula for both stretch marks and scar
      removal (scars and acne). And there are a good
      number of stretch marks cream reviews praising
      the worth to prevent them throughout pregnancy. There are also some relatively newly developed
      stretch mark cream products that are only available
      online and some of these, like Trilastin (click for Trilastin-SR Review), are receiving amazing reviews. You could also check Strivectin-SD for
      stretch marks, which has been reported to work
      very well for wrinkles too. Your diet and taking regular light exercise can go a
      long way in helping you to maintain a healthy skin,
      as can drinking plenty of water. An adequate daily
      supply of water keeps it soft and elastic, so it is less
      likely to be affected. A nutritional deficiency can cause stretch marks
      too; so, to avoid stretch marks, cellulite, and to take
      care of your beauty, make sure you eat foods,
      which are known to promote a healthy skin and
      weight loss, such as nuts, and fish that are rich in
      zinc. Milk, fruits and vegetables contain high amounts of vitamin A, C, D and protein rich food,
      like fish and eggs. Use a high-quality, skin treatment stretch mark cream to make the whole process of stretch marks removal even faster and easier

  26. QUESTION:
    best things to do to get rid of a fever?
    What are some things I can do to get rid of a fever as quick as possible? I got a fever this morning, got checked out of school and slept from like 2 to 6, and was all sweaty and what not. My temp. Is 101.0, what can I do to eliminate this fever as quickly as possible?? Also what would you guess to be the shortest duration of a fever possible if I do all the right things? Thank you

    • ANSWER:
      Fever Remedies
      The pomegranite has been cultivated in Israil for more than 5,000 years. Over the centuries, the people of Israelhave found medicinal uses for many parts of the pomegranite. The rind of the fruit, for example, is used to treat recurring fevers.
      Willow trees, birch trees, ans almonds all yield

      salicin, or natural aspirin. It is common for people in parts of Africa to use these three sources to reduce fever. Western medicine recommends aspirin as an effective and safe way to reduce adult fever; however, natural salicin is an effective alternative.
      Arabian physicians were the first to varify the medicinal properties of the tamarind fruit. Arabs have long eaten tamarinds to reduce high fevers. This treatment is also popular in India, where the tamarind tree originated and where the juice is often served as a cool beverage.
      Sage contains antibacterial and antiseptic compounds, and has been taken in the form of tea since the Middle ages. Popular among the Chinese and Dutch, it has many uses, including the reduction of body temperature.
      The people of Mexico, India, China, and Thailand have known for centuries that their spicy cuisines not only tase good but also can be used to help reduce fevers. Foods containing chili peppers, cayenne pepper, or curry make you perspire, one of your body's most effective methods of cooling off.
      Acerola cherries, native to Ecuador, are effective in the prevention of colds due to their high content of vitamine C. According to the Indians of Ecuador, these cherries also can be eaten to combat high fevers.
      Most people know that normal body temperaure is

      approximately 98.6 degrees fahrenheit (37 degrees celsius). Anything higher is considered a fever. Small changes in body temperature are usually not serious. Temperature can fluctuate depending on the time of day or one's level of activity. In the case of illness, a moderate rise in temperature may help the body fight some types of infection. Above a certain level, however, temperature must be controlled. A fever of 106 degrees fahrenheit or higher (in adults) is extreamly serious and demands immediate medical attention. If the temperature remains at this level for a prolonged period of time, seizures, brain damage, even death, can result. In children, temperatures above 104 degrees fahrenheit can cause damage to the more sensitive brain tissue. For more typical fevers, such as those that accompany a common cold or flu, Western medicine recommends aspirin, or acetaminophen, and cool compress. However, the tribal people of Africa's Kalahari use the root of the devil's claw plant to fight high fevers. The plant has the anti-inflammatory properties of cortisone and may reduce brain tissue swelling that accompanies some bacterial infections. The Africans either boil it into a tea or pound it into a powder.
      The French use a hot tea made from the petals and leaves of the borage flower to treat high fevers. This induces perspiration. Fresh or dried flowers can be used in this treatment. Its said to work best for fevers associated with a cold.
      West Indians make a fiery sweet and sour remedy for fever reduction. They soak the pods of cayenne pepper in hot water, and add sugar and the juice of sour oranges. They drink this beverage freely to reduce fever. It induces sweating and the oranges provide vitamin C.
      In addition to treating several other ailments, ginger, which promotes sweating, can be eaten to reduce high fever.
      In the Mediterranean, parts of the balm root are eaten to induce sweating, which, in turn can break a fever. This cure can be administered in the form of an oil extracted from the root of the plant, or the fresh root can be eaten in salads or soup.
      Borage was also used for fevers by the Greeks and Mediterraneans. They put the crushed leaves and flowers in their wine. An infusion can be brewed by crushing 1 tsp of dried leaves and/or flowers (or 3 tsps of the fresh herb) and steeping in 1 c. of boiling water. Borage has a pleasant, cucumber like taste.
      Betel nuts grow on palm trees found in Malaysia, in New Guinea, and on Normandy Island. Many people in these regions chew the betel for its sedative effects. They know that this nut encourages perspiration, thereby reducing fever. The active ingredients in betel nuts, now synthesized in dozens of forms, are like aspirin in their effectiveness.
      During the Middle Ages, the Romans regarded the herb bennet as an effective fever reducer, A good general tonic for convalescence, bennet wine extract is best for chronic bronchitis and intermittent fever. The extract is prepared by soaking bennet in wine (40 grams of crushed root per 1 liter of wine) for 6 days in a tightly stoppered bottle. It is then strained. One glassful, 3 times a day, is the recommended dose.
      A rural, down home South Carolina cure for chills and fever is dogwood bark (which reduces fever) and black cherry bark soaked in whisky.
      The Australian fever tre

  27. QUESTION:
    What are some remedies for hearing loss?

    • ANSWER:
      Well, there are many different causes of hearing loss - therefore, there will be many different treatments. You can have hearing loss simply caused by excessive ear wax in the ear canals and that is easily remedied by removing the ear wax. In these cases, it is best to have your doctor remove the excessive wax in the office for the safest remedy. You can have hearing loss that involves your middle ear: Fluid in the middle ear, hardening of the bones of the middle ear, hole in the ear drum, etc. Most of these problems can be "remedied" through medical treatment and/or surgery.

      Hearing loss due to inner ear causes are quite varied. You can have hearing loss due to just getting older - called presbycusis. There is no medical treatment for that. Only rehabilitation through hearing aids and learning better listening skills. There are many other causes of inner ear hearing loss other than aging. Some can be quite serious, such as a tumor on the hearing nerve that may require surgical removal. Other problems, such as Meniere's disease or sudden hearing loss have different treatments.

      Your question although is quite simply stated requires books and books of answers - My Masters degree training touched on these answers at best, Medical school and post medical school fellowships for doctors go more indepth of course.

      I hope this gives you an outline of information to answer your question. If you suspect you have a hearing loss start with your family doctor, who may refer you to audiology for a complete audiological evaluation and I am sure you will have more complete answers based on what your problem may be. Good luck.

  28. QUESTION:
    Do I have a sign of Breast cancer?
    I'm afraid from a long time that do I have a sign of breast cancer or something like that? My breasts are not soft they have developed something inside that's hardening it. On places, its very hard and on some places its soft. I can't talk about it to anyone and I have not been to any doctor so far, because I don't know which kind of doctor to visit? My age is 20 years.

    Any help would be appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      BREAST CANCER*:
      Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:
      •A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
      •Bloody discharge from the nipple
      •Change in the size or shape of a breast
      •Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
      •Inverted nipple
      •Peeling, scaling or flaking of the nipple or breast skin
      •Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange
      •Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare, fast-growing type of cancer that often causes no distinct lump. Instead, breast skin may become thick, red, and may look pitted -- like an orange peel. The area may also feel warm or tender and have small bumps that look like a rash.
      Why more and more youngsters are prone to cancer?
      1.A displaced solar plexus.
      2. Bad diet with McDonald’s pizzas, burgers, KFC-deep freeze and deep fried chicken, pork, high rich calorie diets-obesity, etc.
      3. Hormonal imbalance.
      4. Indiscriminate consumption of steroids with no medical supervision by the endocrinologist.
      5. Chronic & Unhealed wounds with blocked energy + toxins in any internal organ.
      6. Sexual promiscuity & indiscriminate consumption of birth control pills 'with no' medical supervision by endocrinologist/gynecologist/physician.
      7. Stress & Strain.
      8. Lack of exercise & ever increasing obese bodies.
      9. Smoking and tobacco/gutka chewing.
      10. Regular consumption of ‘colas’ with heavy doses of insecticides.
      11. Exposure to Sun’s rays @ odd hours.
      12. 24/7-- wearing of bra by the modern woman and avoiding breast feeding the child—breast cancer.

      Instant Diagnosis of Breast Cancer with the aid of acupressure maps.
      Please, study the instructions carefully, discuss with Ur family members and friends and then find out to Ur satisfaction, if U/anybody for that matter is affected by ‘breast cancer’.

      With the help of maps published herein, hard press these points with Ur thumb and middle finger and find out if all/most of acu points are tender.

      Remote control acupressure points to diagnose Breast Cancer, hiv/AIDS, or any disease-Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostrate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 37 [spleen].

      For Treatment and perceivable relief, hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      Palms/soles:
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles:

      1. Diagnosis--In the middle of dorsal side of Ur palm, the remote control point for the breast is given in the acupressure maps published hereunder.. On hard pressing by Ur thumb and middle finger, if it hurts, U may feel that U/she have/has blocked energy in the breast.
      If point no. 16 [lymph] and no.8 [thyroid] are also painful on hard pressure by Ur thumb---then it is confirmed that she has breast cancer.
      If the pain is severe on all these points, it means that the tumor is well grown, ripe for surgical interference..

      2. Prevention & Cure--If U press the surrounding area on both sides of palms, soles, wrists and ankles regularly three times a day and then breast cancer shall not grow further. Acupressure & Indian Natural Remedies can cure breast cancer safely & totally in 45-90 days. T & C apply..

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df
      •PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ Vol. I & II--- by Dr.Devendra Vora, D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Available all over the globe in all Indian languages.
      •Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases---Dr.Devendra Vora has analyzed that pressure applied on certain points located on the palms and soles helps to stimulate all organs of the body, prevents disease and assists in maintaining good health. Acupressure also helps to diagnose, prevent and cure diseases like common cold, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Migraine, Paralysis, and even cancer, HIV/AIDS. Autism, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, all brain and spinal cord affected diseases.

  29. QUESTION:
    My dog has pancretitis, is there any home remedies that will help my dog?

    • ANSWER:
      When the pancreas becomes inflamed, the disorder is called pancreatitis. It is a disease process that is seen commonly in the dog. There is no age, sex, or breed predisposition.

      The pancreas, a vital organ that lies on the right side of the abdomen and has two functions:

      1) to produce enzymes which help in digestion of food and,
      2)to produce hormones, such as insulin.

      The cause of pancreatitis is notreally known; however, there may be several contributory factors. It is often associated with a rich, fatty meal. In some cases, it may be associated with the administration of cortisone; factors tha can contribute to the development of pancreatitis can be infections; metabolic disorders including hyperlipidemia (high amounts of lipid in the blood) and hypercalcemia (high amounts of calcium in the blood); and trauma and shock. Middle-aged dogs appear to be at an increased risk of developing pancreatitis. Of course, nutritionplays a large role. Dogs with diets high in cooked fat, or dogs who 'steal' or are fed greasy 'people food' seem to have a high incidence of the disease.

      Under normal conditions, digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas are activated when they reach the small intestines. In pancreatitis, these enzymes are activated prematurely in the pancreas instead of in the small intestines. This results in digestion of the pancreas itself. The clinical signs of pancreatitis are often variable, and the intensity of the disease will depend on the quantity of enzymes that are prematurely activated.

      There are two main forms of acute (sudden onset) pancreatitis:

      1) the mild, edematous form and,
      2) the more severe, hemorrhagic form.

      A few dogs that have and recover from an acute episode of pancreatitis may continue to have recurrent bouts of the acute disease, known as chronic, relapsing pancreatitis. The associated inflammation allows digestive enzymes to spill into the abdominal cavity which can result in secondary damage to surrounding organs, such as the liver, bile ducts, gall bladder, and intestines.

      Nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea typically manifest the disease. The symptoms can also be a very painful abdomen, abdominal distention, lack of appetite, depression, dehydration, a 'hunched up' posture, vomiting, diarrhea and yellow, greasy stool. Fever often accompanies these symptoms. If the attack is severe, acute shock, depression, and death may occur. Laboratory tests usually reveal an elevated white blood cell count; however, many other things besides pancreatitis may also cause an elevated white blood cell count. The elevation of pancreatic enzymes in the blood is probably the most helpful criteria in detecting pancreatic disease, but some dogs with pancreatitis will have normal levels. Radiographs and ultrasound studies may show an area of inflammation in the location of the pancreas. Unfortunately, many dogs with pancreatitis will elude detection with any of these tests. Consequently, the diagnosis of pancreatitis may be tentative in some cases.

      Will my dog recover?

      The prognosis depends on the extent of the disease when presented and a favorable response to initial therapy. Dogs that present with shock and depression have a very guarded prognosis. Most of the mild forms of pancreatitis have a good prognosis.

      Treatment/Management

      The successful management of pancreatitis will depend on early diagnosis and prompt medical therapy. Resting the pancreas from its role in digestion best treats the mild form of the disease. The only way to "turn off" the pancreas is to withhold all oral fluids and food for a short period of time. This approach is of course, accompanied by intravenous fluids to maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance. In addition, anti-inflammatory herbs, homeopathic remedies or drugs are sometimes administered. The presence of shock necessitates the immediate and intense use of intravenous fluids.

      Usually, a number of cells that produce the digestive enzymes are destroyed either prior to the attack or due to the attack its self which will cause insufficient digestion of foods to follow. This is known as pancreatic insufficiency and can be treated with daily administration of enzymes added in the food. If a significant number of cells that produce insulin are destroyed, diabetes mellitus can result and insulin therapy may be needed. In rare cases, adhesions between the abdominal organs may occur as a consequence of pancreatitis. However, most dogs recover with no long-term effects.

      Recommendations to prevent and treat pancreatitis

      1. Dietary enzymes in a chewable healthy pet treat or granular form sprinkled on the food.

      Enzymes are heat sensitive and destroyed in processing/cooking of all commercial foods or making home cooked diets. As care givers ot our dogs, we must put dietary enzymes back into the diet, in order to maintain proper wellness and not deplete their body of this important resource. Enzymes are of course needed to properly digest foods but they have other functions in the body as well, such as helping or preventing the following:

      · Allergic reactions
      · Arthritis
      · Orthopedic problems ~ HOD, OCO, Pano, Wobblers, Hip Dysplasia, ACL
      · Epilepsy and Seizures
      · Vaccine reactions
      Enzymes act as a natural anti-inflammatory ~ so you can avoid risky medicines
      Enzymes Cleanse residual toxins from medicines, flea and parasite preparations.
      Enzymes Boost the immune system
      · Reduces shedding
      · Reduce itchy ears
      · Prevent and aid in healing Yeast infections,
      · Bladder infections,
      · Hotspots,
      Enzymes reduce healing time from injury, surgery (cropping/bloat/c-sections),
      · Reduce recovery time from anesthesia.

      We recommend Fastrack Microbial Powder orSolid Gold D-Zymes Digestive Enzymes 2. Probiotics or “friendly bacteria”

      Probiotics are microorganisms necessary for a healthy and balanced intestinal tract. There are two types of bacteria found in the intestinal tract, good and harmful bacteria. Good bacteria, or probiotics, ensure good health, as they are absolutely vital to help:

      1. Produce natural antibiotics, which can fight harmful bacteria
      2. Regulate and increase hormone levels
      3. Manufacture B group vitamins, biotin and folic acid
      4. Stimulate the immune system
      5. Reduce food intolerance
      6. Increase energy levels
      7. Inhibit the growth of some yeast
      8. Absorb nutrients, antioxidants and iron from food that is eaten
      9. Reduce inflammation
      10. Increase digestibility of food
      11. Enhance Immune Function

      We recommend Fastrack Canine Gel and/or Fastrack Canine Microbial Supplement powder, which also contain enzymes as well!

      3. Diet
      The die should be low in fat without harmful chemical additives or “junk” and easily digested.

      Nutrition and your dog’s daily diet should be closely examined. Read the labels on your dog’s food and see what the ingredients are and what the fat, salt and grain content are.

      Look for a food that is all natural with no artificial flavors, colors, preservatives, etc. and has more meat then any other ingredient and no grains or just rice as a grain. As stated above, pancretitis is usually caused by eating a very high fat, rich meal that the dog is not used to or due to the use of cortisone. Natural, raw fats (empasis on raw) are normally well tolerated by healthy dogs. It is the cooked, processed fats that tend to cause the problem. So, unless your dog has chronic pancretitis, there is really no need to switch to a lower fat diet for the dog, just a healthier one over all.

      The pancreas is in control of insulin production, which controls blood glucose regulation. This means that often dogs with diabetes can be prone to pancreatitis, and pancreatitis can lead to diabetes. This means it would be a good idea to watch the amount of sugar in the diet as well. This would include high glycemic vegetables, fruits and honey as well as grains.

      Avoid grains such as corn, wheat, barley, rye and even oats and soy. Dogs were not designed to properly digest grains in the first place and they turn to sugars in the body.

      If you feed table scraps or cook for your dog, be sure to avoid fatty foods such as gravy, bacon, ham, sausage, margarine or processed foods. Feed only unseasoned meats and leave out the veggies and fruit.

  30. QUESTION:
    In what ways might it be said that medieval European healers were engaging in magical practices? What role?
    help me please!

    • ANSWER:
      Medieval medicine was a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences with "shamanistic complex". In this era, there was no tradition of scientific medicine, and observations went hand-in-hand with spiritual influences. In the early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not, however, purely secular, but were also based on a world view in which factors such as destiny, sin, and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause. The efficacy of cures was similarly bound in the beliefs of patient and doctor rather than empirical evidence, so that remedia physicalia (physical remedies) were often subordinate to spiritual intervention. In the early period there was no single, organized, strand of medieval medicine. Instead someone struck down by injury or disease could turn to folk medicine, prayer, astrology, spells, mysticism, or to an established physician if such were available to him. The boundaries between each profession were loose and movable. Classical medical texts, such as those by Galen, were widely used on the basis of authority rather than experimental confirmation.

  31. QUESTION:
    H10 POINTS How much continuity was there from the Roman period to end of the Middle Ages in medical .... ->?
    H10 POINTS How much continuity was there from the Roman period to end of the Middle Ages in medical TREAMENT AND HOME REMEDIES

    • ANSWER:
      None WHATSOEVER.

  32. QUESTION:
    Life of a Noble's daughter in the Middle Ages?
    I am doing a project on the Middle Ages, can you give me a list of things that a Noble's daughter did? And a few things she wasn't allowed to do. Thanks so much! :)

    • ANSWER:
      The life of a medieval noble's daughter would not have been very exciting. She would have spent her time at home, learning how to read and write and figure. (Upper-class girls got a reasonably good education, sometimes rather better than the boys got, since so much time was spent teaching the boys how to fight and ride.)

      She would have learned how to function as an estate doctor -- making herbal potions and remedies, brewing up cordials and even beer and liquor. A medieval "lady of the manor" supervised such things as sewing, cloth weaving, the laundry, cleaning, the kitchen garden, and cooking; and she would have handled minor medical issues for her family and the serfs and retainers. The noble's daughter would have learned these things, too, from her mother and -- if this was a great estate - from her mother's ladies and the serving women.

      In other words, it wasn't all luxury for a young girl being raised to become a noble's wife. She had a lot to learn and hard work to do, even if she belonged to a very important family. Life back then was difficult. Remember, there was no running water, no indoor plumbing, no central heating, no machines to wash anything, no electric ovens and stoves to cook with, no stores at which to buy anything on an estate. Only when you visited a major town or city could you enjoy real "shopping".

      By the time the girl was 14, her parents would have had her betrothed to someone. By 15 or 16, she would have been married, running a household of her own, and very likely pregnant with her first child. At that point, she would have been relying on her mother or mother-in-law, and some sort of local midwife, to make sure she didn't die in childbirth. So many young girls did.

      Edit: a novel that has long been regarded as an excellent portrayal of women's lives in the late Middle Ages in England is Anya Seton's "Katherine," a very well-researched fictional biography of a real woman who married into the royal family. Anya Seton was the grandmother of one of my college classmates. She was a wonderful historical novelist.

      See below:

  33. QUESTION:
    What is causing the ringing in my ears?
    this has been going on for a long time, I don't have insurance and cannot afford to go to the DR.
    I have been a diabetick for about 20 years and receitly had to drop avandia because of the cost. So sugars have been running high, I think Don may of hit it on the head but hope to get some other ideas on it.

    • ANSWER:
      Tinnitus is the medical name for ringing in the ears. It is best described as a perception of sound when none is present. Sometimes the noise is described as hissing, roaring or whining. The type of noise is always the same, but the perceived loudness can vary, and it is not always present in both ears. It is a condition that afflicts 1 in 6 North Americans at some point in their lives. Tinnitus has the potential to completely disable a person. The noises cannot be heard by other people, although there is a rare form of “objective tinnitus”, which results from transmitted noise from abnormal blood vessels and muscle clicks.

      The cause of tinnitus is controversial. The current school of thought suggests that the origin is due to microscopic changes in nerve endings of the hearing nerve that transmits signals from the inner ear to the brain. Most of us have experienced some mild form of transient deafness and tinnitus after being exposed to loud noise, which resolves in a short time. Advanced age itself can cause changes in these nerve endings producing tinnitus. Some causes are easily treatable while others are resistant. Sometimes physical factors such as wax build up will produce tinnitus, while simple removal cures it. Medical conditions that affect nerve endings can cause tinnitus. I run checks for diabetes, anemia, thyroid problems, blood pressure, allergies and endocrine problems when tinnitus persists. One rare cause that I have seen, involves a tumour of the middle ear, called an acoustic neuroma which responds to surgery. Some minor head injuries and chronic ear infections produce tinnitus as well. Some antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, older antidepressants and overuse of aspirin can cause ringing in the ears.

      Many times the cause is not readily apparent. It is impossible to objectively document post-viral causes. Treatment in the resistant cases is quite difficult. Sometimes it involves trying medications with varied success. Other strategies use masking. Tinnitus is more bothersome in dark quiet surroundings. Introducing a competing sound such as a radio may make it less noticeable. Sophisticated “white noise” headsets and hearing aids attempt to produce the same reduction. Some people are driven to undergo sophisticated training techniques in relaxation and cognitive blocking. Avoiding fatigue, excessive salt and caffeine intake seems to help somewhat. It makes sense that if the problem involves a sensitive nerve ending, then strategies to maintain good “nerve health” help. There also seems to be a large market of unproved remedies touting “cure for the right price”, that springs up around difficult to treat conditions such as tinnitus. It makes good sense to protect your hearing at an early age, so as to avoid problems later on. Tinnitus is a serious condition. It should involve a team approach between your family doctor, otolaryngologist (ENT) and audiologist.

      Hope this helps...

      Don

  34. QUESTION:
    Hair on my lower back, stomach and chest, thick long pubic hair, very long arm hair! How can i get rid of it?
    It's making me self conscious!! help!! is this normal??
    i'm 13 and british....

    • ANSWER:
      Hair problems could be due to a hormonal imbalance. If you're over 35, it could be due to peri-menopause where your hormones begin to change. All women have testosterone and androgen hormones, but when peri-menopause begins the estrogen levels begin to drop off and those reduced levels can no longer mask the effects of the testosterone - hence middle aged women sometimes get a dark facial hair here and there. Bleach and plucking take care of that.

      Hair is also an ethnic thing. Many women of Mediterranean backgrounds are often hairier than women of Asian or Northern European ancestry.

      Do not shave your arms! You will end up with coarser hair and stubble! Bleach is an inexpensive OTC remedy for arm hair.

      Pubic and torso hair is not that big a deal! You wear clothing so nobody will see it.

      But if it is really, really bad then you can go to a licensed aesthetician for laser hair removal.

      EDIT

      Okay, you're still very young and northern European. Your problem could be more than cosmetic. Then I suggest you ask your mother to make an appointment with your doctor. What you describe is the result of a serious hormone imbalance and you need to be checked out. Too bad you're in the UK. With your medical system you'll be lucky to get seen by an endocrinologist by the time you turn eighteen. It's not "free" when it costs you your self-esteem and confidence. Being thirteen is tough enough without looking like a werewolf.

      If your family has the funds, I suggest you talk to your parents about taking you to the USA for immediate care. No young girl should have to live with a treatable hormone imbalance.

  35. QUESTION:
    Why most alopathic medicines should not be taken on empty stomach ?

    • ANSWER:
      As civilizations emerge, medicine is initially founded on a mixture of magic, religion and empirically tested folk remedies. As magic and religion both declined during the middle ages in Europe, medicine sought a new basis. It had to be something that would impress patients, a substitue for the incantations that no longer impressed: something that gave the impression that the healer was doing something.

      The answer was the principle of allopathy, which had been developed in the Middle East around the first century B.C. The idea was simple: when the body's workings deviate form the normal, the doctor should try directly to restore normal function. Thus, if a man is feverish, he should be cooled down; if constipated, given a laxative. Illnesses were seen as something toxic that should be eliminated, so treatments concentrated on cleansing the body of poisons. This led to approaches such as bleedings, leeches, enemas, purgatives and so on. If one harsh treatment failed, another, harsher one might be applied, depicted cynically by Molière. The war metaphor became entrenched in early medicine: doctors battled disease and waged war on sickness.

      Many doctors worried about the aggressive nature of such treatments, but the alternative of rest and food appeared passive and implied that the doctor had nothing to suggest. Indeed, the only real alternative was homeopathic medicine. Only with Pasteur's discoveries did allopathy develop a scientific basis for at least some of its remedies. Germs offered a good target for allopathic treatments and so the battleground switched to the microbial wars.

      By the end of the nineteenth century, a growing consensus arose that allopathic medicine was the ideal approach; homeopathy seemed to be losing ground. The term 'allopathic' was discarded to imply that all true medicine followed this approach, and other forms of medicine fell into disrepute. In general they were not regarded as sufficiently threatening to the orthodoxy to be actively opposed.

      Disillusionment started around the 1950s when, despite wonderful advances in "conquering infectious disease" and developing new drugs, disease seemed as widespread as ever. Hospitals remained full and waiting lists stayed long. Perhaps the very success of allopathic medicine allowed people to survive to ages at which degenerative diseases afflicted them, but against these the allopathic approach was less effective. Then drug-resistant organisms also developed, so more powerful drugs were developed to combat them. But powerful drugs produce significant side-effects; allergic reactions increased; iatrogenic disorders (those produced by treatments) rose in importance (see the famous book Medical Nemesis by Ivan Illich). Events such as the Thalidomide disaster brought the limitations of modern drugs to public attention. Awareness of the need to strike a balance between doing good versus harm stimulated the entire edifice of controlled clinical trials. But economic pressures in support of the allopathic approach are immense: we are all familiar with the the political pressures exerted by major pharmaceutical manufacturers.

      Meanwhile many of the basic teneds of the allopathic approach have been discarded from routine practice. Physicians feel less of a need to treat every condition, even though patients have long been trained to expect a prescription. Helping the body to cure itself, the approach of many alternative therapies, is becoming common, but it is not yet clear what balance will be struck between the allopathic approach and alternatives. As a physician in the allopathic system, you will certainly be caught between the demands of some patients for a prescription and the recognition that many others are using alternative therapies.

  36. QUESTION:
    What are the remedies to reverse Arteriosclerosis?

    • ANSWER:
      There is a product which claims to clean out the arteries [controversial but my chiropractor says yes to the ingredients in it]. It is called Advanced Artery Solution and it's found at http://www.truehealth.com/itemdy00.asp?t1=TAASC
      - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
      Then serrapeptase which was recommended by someone else here. Read more about it here http://www.serrapeptase.info/cond_arteriosclerosis.htm
      - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
      Something else worth looking into is Vitamin K.
      According to http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2000/feb00-report.html
      Arteries, aging and vitamin K

      Bad arteries kill more people in America than any other condition. The medical term for hardened artery is "arteriosclerosis," a dangerous condition that leads to heart attack and stroke. A normal artery is pliable like an inner tube. Its built-in muscle contracts to send blood through. A hardened artery loses its muscle tone, and can't contract. Aging is the main cause of arteriosclerosis.

      While doing autopsies in a public hospital in the early 1900s, a German pathologist named J.G. Mönckeberg noticed that the middle layer of arteries from people who died of heart attacks was calcified. This layer (the "media") wasn't considered important in Mönckeberg's time. His colleagues focused on the innermost layer of the artery where damage is visible. Mönckeberg's observations went against the grain, but he dutifully recorded them in Virchow's Archives.

      Although nobody paid much attention to him, Mönckeberg was later proven correct. "Arteriosclerosis," or hardening of the arteries, occurs in the middle of the artery where it's not visible. "Atherosclerosis" occurs inside the artery, where lesions are visible. Arteriosclerosis is associated with aging, and has nothing to do with cholesterol. Instead, it has to do with calcification.

      Vitamin K protects the heart

      Sudden death from heart attack is associated with calcification of the aorta, especially in young men. In the Framingham Heart Study, 35 year-old men with calcifications in the aorta had a 7 times increased risk of dying of a sudden heart attack. The risk decreases with age, but the chance of suddenly dying of a heart attack is doubled in people under 65 if their aortas are calcified.

      Calcification is just as dangerous as fatty build-up. Researchers in Japan fed rats a heart attack-friendly diet based on vitamin D and cholesterol. (Vitamin D is used by researchers to create heart disease in animal models. It causes rapid hardening of the aorta. Vitamin D, along with cholesterol, creates both aspects of human-like heart disease, i.e., hardening of the arteries and lesions). Some of the animals were given 100 mg/kg of body weight of vitamin K, along with the heart attack diet. Others were fed 40 mg/kg of vitamin E.

      After three weeks, the amount of calcium in the aorta was measured. In the animals that didn't get the vitamins, calcium levels averaged 17.5 µ/mg. Vitamin K reduced the level of calcium in the aorta to approximately 1 µ/mg, and vitamin E reduced it even more. Valve damage from the heart attack diet was drastically reversed by vitamins K and E . [end of quote]

      Go to the website to read the whole story including the important recommended dosage and precautions.
      - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
      Finally there is the Water Cure & rebounding at least for prevention.

  37. QUESTION:
    anybody know any medicines used in the middle ages and what the medicines were used for please?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi G.
      Your in luck. I recently had to do a term paper on that very subject. It is long , sorry G.
      Here is what I know. As the populations of medieval towns and cities increased, hygienic conditions worsened, leading to a vast array of health problems. Medical knowledge was limited and, despite the efforts of medical practitioners and public and religious institutions to institute regulations, medieval Europe did not have an adequate health care system. Antibiotics weren't invented until the 1800s and it was almost impossible to cure diseases without them. There were many myths and superstitions about health and hygiene as there still are today. People believed, for example, that disease was spread by bad odors. It was also assumed that diseases of the body resulted from sins of the soul. Many people sought relief from their ills through meditation, prayer, pilgrimages, and other non medical metho
      Most medieval medicines were "simples" made of herbal ingredients, which were taken raw or in teas. One medicine that apothecaries (forerunners of chemists and pharmacists) dispensed was called "treacle" (theriac). Treacle was considered a cure-all. It was said to prevent internal swellings, cure fevers, unblock internal stoppages, alleviate heart problems, epilepsy, and palsy, get rid of blemishes, induce sleep, improve digestion, strengthen limbs, heal wounds, remedy snake bites, cure prolapsed uterus's, and cure the plague.
      The formula for treacle stems from a recipe developed by the Greek physician Galen and includes more than 60 ingredients, including the roasted skin of vipers. It took 40 days to make and 12 years to mature.
      Draping colored cloths from the bed and around a person infected with smallpox was a treatment that may have been related to magic and witchcraft. Or it could have been related to that fact that smallpox patients suffered from photophobia--the colored cloths may have protected them from the light.
      Astrology played a role in health and medicine in the later Middle Ages. It became especially important after the Black Death, when it was relied upon to forecast the spread of the disease. A person born under a sign of the moon, for example, might be prone to worry, frequent colds, and insanity, whereas people born under other signs of the zodiac could be prone to skin diseases.
      Epidemics struck repeatedly in the Middle Ages. People suffered from many diseases, including smallpox, dysentery, leprosy, respiratory illnesses, malaria, and syphilis. In those times, people died from measles, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis.
      Leprosy was thought to be extremely contagious, though today we know it isn't contagious at all. Lepers were classed with heretics, Jews, homosexuals, prostitutes, pimps, and any others on the margins of society. When in public, lepers announced themselves by sounding bells and rattles to warn people away. Not allowed to touch food, in the marketplace, lepers had to point to their food choices with staffs.
      A person suspected of having leprosy was made to renounce the "normal" world and had to promise to abide by many restrictions. These restrictions included not touching anything or anyone, except for his or her spouse. Thousands were sent to leper colonies scattered all over Europe. These colonies, called "leprosaria," were operated by religious and municipal authorities. For some the leprosaria may not have been totally unbearable places. Lepers who had money could live in a leprosarium with their wives and children. Wealthy merchants often left money to the leper colonies in their wills.
      I hope this helps you G.
      Good luck my friend,
      Cathorio.

  38. QUESTION:
    My 4 yr old has a 102 fever, what should I do?
    My daughter hasn't been sick since she was 2 years old so I don't know about what to do at this age. It's the third day of this. Fever spikes in afternoon and breaks in the middle of the night. She is keeping down fluids after vomiting on the first day. I have heard that a fever is the bodies way of fighting viruses but should I still give a fever reducer or just let it ride it's course? She doesn't complain of sore throat or have any rashes, but she does have a dry cough. Thanks in advance for any advice you have. We really want to avoid taking her to the doctor and exposing her to more germs while she is less tolerant.

    • ANSWER:
      Fever in Children Treatment
      Self-Care at Home

      The 3 goals of home care for a child with a fever are to reduce the temperature, prevent dehydration, and monitor for serious or life-threatening illness.

      The first goal is to make the child comfortable by monitoring and reducing the fever to under 102°F (38.9°C). This is done using a thermometer and medications and dressing the child appropriately. A warm water bath can also be helpful.

      * To check your child’s temperature, you will need a thermometer. Thermometers available are glass mercury, digital, and tympanic (used in the ear).
      * Stay away from tympanic thermometers, the jury is still out about their accuracy.
      o Glass thermometers work well but may break and take several minutes to get a reading.
      o Digital thermometers are inexpensive and obtain a reading in seconds.
      * It is best to check an infant's or toddler’s temperature rectally.
      o Hold the child chest down across your knees.
      o Spread the buttocks with one hand and insert the thermometer lubricated with a water-soluble jelly about 1 inch into the rectum with the other hand.
      * Oral temperatures may be obtained in older children who are not mouth breathing or have not recently had a hot or cold beverage.
      * Acetaminophen (Children’s Tylenol, Tempra) and ibuprofen (Children’s Advil, Children’s Motrin) are used to reduce fever.
      o Follow the dosage and frequency printed on the label.
      o Remember to continue to give the medication over at least 24 hours or the fever will usually return.
      o Do not use aspirin to treat fever in children, especially for a fever with chickenpox. It has been linked to Reye’s syndrome which causes liver failure. Ibuprofen use in chickenpox is also being questioned.
      * Children should not be overdressed indoors, even in the winter.
      o Overdressing keeps the body from cooling using evaporation, radiation, conduction, or convection.
      o Most practical is to dress the child in a single layer of clothing and cover the child with a sheet or light blanket.
      * A sponge bath in warm water will help reduce a fever.
      o This is usually not needed but may more quickly reduce the fever.
      o Put the child in a few inches of warm water and use a sponge or washcloth to wet the skin of the body and arms and legs.
      o The water itself does not cool the child. The evaporation of the water off the skin does, so do not cover the child with wet towels.
      o Contrary to the popular folk remedy to reduce fever, under no circumstances should rubbing alcohol be used in a bath or rubbed on the skin. Alcohol is poisonous to children.

      The second goal is to keep the child from becoming dehydrated. Humans lose extra water from the skin and lungs during a fever.

      * Encourage the child to drink clear fluids such as non-carbonated drinks without caffeine or juice (not water). Water does not contain the necessary electrolytes and glucose. Other clear fluids are chicken soup, Pedialyte, and other rehydrating drinks available at your grocery or drug store.
      * Tea or other caffeine-containing products should not be used. They act as diurectics and increase urination and fluid loss. This is not the effect you want.
      * Your child should urinate light-colored urine at least every 4 hours if well hydrated.

      The third goal is to monitor the child for signs of serious or life-threatening illness.

      * A good strategy is to reduce the child’s temperature to under 102°F (39.0°C).
      * Also, make sure the child is drinking enough clear fluids (not water).
      * If both these conditions are met and your child is still ill appearing, a more serious problem may exist.

      Medical Treatment

      Your doctor may or may not be able to tell you the exact cause of your child’s fever.

      Viral infections of the respiratory system are the most common cause of fever. Antibiotics do not cure or help with viral infections.

      * If your doctor diagnoses a bacterial infection, your child will be started on antibiotics.
      o Urinary tract infections, ear infections, throat infections, sinus infections, skin infections, gastrointestinal infections, and pneumonia may be treated with antibiotics at home.
      o Your child may receive oral antibiotics or a shot or both.
      * Children diagnosed with bacterial meningitis are always admitted to the hospital.

      Additionally, your doctor may give acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) for fever.

      Dehydration may be treated by giving oral or intravenous fluids.

      * If a child is vomiting, an anti-nausea drug may be given by injection or by rectal suppository.
      * After a period of time, oral fluids will be attempted.

      If your child’s condition improves after reducing the fever, treating dehydration, and serious bacterial infections have been ruled out, the doctor will more than likely discharge your child from the emergency department for further care and monitoring at home.

  39. QUESTION:
    Who had better Public health and Medicine, Romans or Medieval Britain?
    give some examples and reasons on why was better than the other.

    • ANSWER:
      A lot of Roman medicine was based on Greek medicine, and a fair number of doctors in Rome were Greek and schooled in the precepts of Hippocrates and others. Unfortunately, a great deal of this knowledge was misplaced for centuries following the collapse of the Roman Empire in western Europe.

      To turn to the concept of public health, for the most part, doctors cared for the wealthy. The poor were dependent on folk remedies (which occasionally had some sound basis) based on plants and herbs. This state of affairs continued well into the Middle Ages.

      In medieval times, monasteries and convents often had an infirmary overseen by a monk or nun who had some skill in herbology, and these infirmarians often cared for the local populace as well as the members of their religious community.

      There were also many local residents in villages who practiced folk medicine, which was also largely based on herb lore. Often these people were older women who, when things got difficult, ended up being accused of witchcraft.

      Now, as to which was better than the other, I might be somewhat inclined toward the view that the doctors of antiquity might have had somewhat more extensive medical knowledge than their medieval counterparts; interestingly, it was the Muslims who kept this knowledge alive. The followers of Islam also had a high regard for the practice of bathing regularly, which most western Europeans weren't in the habit of doing. This lack of personal hygiene also contributed to the health problems in Europe.

  40. QUESTION:
    In Hippocrates's theory of the Four Humours, what is Black Bile?
    The other three are obvious as to what they are, but what did he mean by Black Bile?

    • ANSWER:
      Bile is a mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat (Wile and Durnell). The medieval theory of the four humors lists two kinds of bile (black and yellow). These represented the characteristics of choleric and melancholic personality types. Melancholia (from Greek μελαγχολία - melancholia, "sadness", literally black bile) (Liddell and Scott), also lugubriousness, from the Latin lugere, to mourn; moroseness, from the Latin morosus, self-willed, fastidious habit; wistfulness, from old English wist: intent, or saturnine (Saturn), in contemporary usage, is a mood disorder of non-specific depression, characterized by low levels of both enthusiasm and eagerness for activity.

      In a modern context, "melancholy" applies only to the mental or emotional symptoms of depression or despondency; historically, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, and melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties (Berrios).

      The name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humors: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or other of the four basic bodily liquids, or humors. Personality types were similarly determined by the dominant humor in a particular person. According to Hippocrates, melancholia was caused by an excess of black bile (Jones), hence the name, which means "black bile", from Ancient Greek μέλας (melas), "dark, black" (Liddell and Scott), + χολή (kholé), "bile" (Liddell and Scott); a person whose constitution tended to have a preponderance of black bile had a melancholic disposition (e.g., sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric).

      Melancholia was described as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Hippocrates, in his Aphorisms, characterized all "fears and despondencies, if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of melancholia (6.23).

      In his study of French and Burgundian courtly culture, Johan Huizinga noted that "at the close of the Middle Ages, a sombre melancholy weighs on people's souls." In chronicles, poems, sermons, even in legal documents, an immense sadness, a note of despair and a fashionable sense of suffering and deliquescence at the approaching end of times, suffuses court poets and chroniclers alike: Huizinga quoted instances in the ballads of Eustache Deschamps, "monotonous and gloomy variations of the same dismal theme", and in Georges Chastellain's prologue to his Burgundian chronicle ("I, man of sadness, born in an eclipse of darkness, and thick fogs of lamentation."), and in the late fifteenth-century poetry of Jean Meschinot. Ideas of reflection and the workings of imagination are blended in the term merencolie, embodying for contemporaries "a tendency", observed Huizinga, "to identify all serious occupation of the mind with sadness" (25).

      The most extended treatment of melancholia comes from Robert Burton, whose The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) treats the subject from both a literary and a medical perspective. Burton wrote in the sixteenth century that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia.

      "But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise (3481) of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against (3482) despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself. Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in (3483) Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, 'That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout.' Ismenias the Theban, (3484) Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now they do those, saith (3485) Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance."

      - The Anatomy of Melancholy, subsection three, on and after line 3480, "Music a Remedy".

      A famous allegorical engraving by Albrecht Dürer is entitled Melencolia I. This engraving portrays melancholia as the state of waiting for inspiration to strike, and not necessarily as a depressive affliction. Amongst other allegorical symbols, Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic, and Nobel Laureate of Literature Orhan Pamuk noted that the picture includes a magic square, and a truncated rhombohedron. The image in turn inspired a passage in The City of Dreadful Night by James Thomson (B.V.), and, a few years later, a sonnet by Edward Dowden.

  41. QUESTION:
    Why is Osteoarthritis found mainly in the joints of fingers,spine, knees and hip?

    • ANSWER:
      a. Osteoarthritis (OA), or degenerative joint disease, is one of the most common complaints among middle-aged people into the elderly years. The processes that lead to the degeneration of cartilage that is responsible for OA can add to a predisposal to the disease. OA involves the synovial membrane/ fluid, articular cartilage, and the subchondral bone. In many ways it is the cumulative effects of long-term wear and tear in the joints that lead to the breakdown of cartilage and stiffening of joints associated with OA. On a deeper level, previous joint damage, mechanical injury, genetic factors, and hormonal problems lead to a release of cytokines, which precipitates the release of enzymes that break down and damage the joint tissues. This triggers a feedback loop of enzymatic release and breakdown.
      b. Risk factors include; advanced age, obesity, previous joint damage, repetitive use of the joint, anatomic abnormalities, and genetic predisposition
      c. The earliest signs often noticed with OA are pain and stiffness following use. Often the pain is not noticed while the joint is being used, it is after cessation of use and ultimately following a rest period. The down time allows time for tightening of the joint structures. There is also a high instance of a loss of joint functionality. This is usually the point that many patients seek medical care.
      d. The initial diagnosis of OA is difficult to make, and is often over-diagnosed or under-diagnosed, due to only 30% of patients whose x-rays show signs of OA report pain. Other than an x-ray, physical assessment is done to check for inflamed joints that are tender and noticeably enlarged. A narrowing of the joint space and the presence of osteophytes alone cannot be a definite diagnosis. When combined, these findings are specific to OA.
      e. The first thing that is done in treatment, if diagnosis is made early enough, is to attempt lifestyle adjustments to slow the degeneration of the joints. This can include weight loss, herbal supplementation (glucosamine and chondroitin), preventing of injuries, strengthening supportive muscles, and making ergonomic adjustments. Other treatments, though unproven to have any true benefit, include: deep massage, pulsed electromagnetic fields, yoga, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and even music therapy. Ultimately, all of these treatments focus on slowing the disease process down, yet the damage will eventually render the joint too painful to use. At this point, and after pharmacotherapy is no longer helpful on its own, surgical treatment is needed. The treatments range, depending on the severity, from cleaning the joint up through a scope by removing osteophytes and resurfacing the joint, all the way up to an arthroplasty. An arthroplasty refers to the removal of diseased joint components and replacing them with artificial parts.
      f. Nursing care for a patient who has been with osteoarthritis is focused on pain management and the re-acquirement of daily function. This care consists of both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. These items can be used in conjunction for the greatest control of the symptoms of OA. Educating the patients to the fact that exercise and weight loss will help the pain, even though they will be resistant to the idea of exercising because of the pain. Discussion of herbal and other alternative remedies need to be discussed to prevent any dangerous interactions and unrealistic expectations of “curing” OA.
      g. Smeltzer, S.C., & Bare, B.G., & Hinkle, J.L., & Cheever, K.H. (2008). Degenerative Joint Disease (Osteoarthritis)In Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical- Surgical Nursing: 11th Edition (1914-1916). Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  42. QUESTION:
    Need to know how to make an echinacea salve.?
    Have heard that echinacea salves rubbed on eczema & psoriasis seem to help tremendously. Any info on where to purchase or info on how to make the salve would be helpful.
    Would like to know of any positive affects from taking echinacea orally.

    • ANSWER:
      If you just put in on the skin you will be fine. Don't eat this!!!! any health food store will have the salve.

      1 cup dried Echinacea - dried leaf
      1 cup olive oil
      2 Vitamin E capsules
      ½ cup chopped beeswax

      Herb stores and some natural food stores sell grated beeswax. Beeswax is flammable so use caution that it doesn’t spill onto your heating element!

      Make an infused Echinacea oil with the echinacea, olive oil and Vitamin E by heating the echinacea and oil in a double boiler over low heat for 2 to 3 hours. Remove from heat and add liquid from Vitamin E capsules. Melt the beeswax: use a double boiler. (you can use an uncovered glass espresso carafe with a handle in a wider, low saucepan of water, which worked well, too.) Bring the water to a boil—the beeswax turns liquid in several minutes. Add the echinacea oil. Remove from heat. Fill the liquid into small, dry, sterile glass jars and seal when cool and hardened. You can add a couple drops of tea oil too just before you put it in the jar to cool.

      I read the following about castor oil.

      Testimonial of healing psoriasis with castor oil
      Email Pegi metashankara@gmail.com
      Date: 10 Jan 2005

      I had really bad psoriasis about a year ago (and since I was a small child and I am 38 years old) and last April I began massaging castor oil on my liver after each shower (daily) and I have seen a 90% reduction in my psoriasis since that time. I didn't have the patience to do the packs so I just do the daily massage and have seen amazing results. I put about a dime size amount in my hand and without having dried the area of my abdomen after my shower so that it is still moist, I massage in the oil. I don't massage it for any real length of time - no more than the time I spend massaging in other lotions into my skin. After a couple weeks of 30 degree temperatures I have had a little psoriasis pop up, but the amount is so minimal in comparison to what I have experienced in the past that I am unconcerned and undaunted. I have also struggled with endometriosis and have had physicians want to do surgery on me for the condition. I do a full abdomen massage with the oil and my endometriosis symptoms have greatly reduced as well. Castor Oil is also suppose to help soften scar tissue. I have had 2 c sections and after 8 months of using the castor oil, once was once a nasty thick and solid scar is now almost imperceptible.

      Oil Packs (for external use)

      The Oil That Heals by William A. McGarey, M.D.
      A fascinating analysis of a medical doctor's research on and verification of the healing properties of castor oil packs, first recommended by the noted psychic Edgar Cayce as an adjunct for many ailments that resist traditional medical treatment.

      This natural oil has amazing healing properties. It has been used in virtually every major civilization since antiquity for the cure of normally fatal disabling conditions. In India, they called it erand. In ancient Greece it was known as kiki. It is mentioned in the Bible and in the most ancient Egyptian papyrus yet found. In Europe, in the Middle Ages, it was used by some to cure the plague. They called it the "palma christi" or the "hand of Christ." This extract of the castor bean is a safe, gentle, easy to use remedy for virtually any illness - when it is used externally.

      Castor oil (cold pressed)

  43. QUESTION:
    What are remedies for menstrual cramps?

    • ANSWER:
      FOR ME EXCERCISE WORKS GREAT AND IT HELPS KEEP ME IN A BETTER MOOD WHILE I AM PMS'ING

      HERE IS SOME OTHER INFORMATION ON MENSTRATION AND SYPMTOM RELEIF

      Many women (up to 90%) have menstrual cramps. Most are simply due to menstruation itself and don't indicate any underlying gynecological problems. The medical term for this is Primary Dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea is from Latin words meaning "bad menstruation" (no joke!).

      PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA (MENSTRUAL CRAMPS) CHARACTERISTICS
      Menstrual cramps start a day or so before actual menses. They are felt in the lower or middle abdomen. They can radiate (spread) to the hips, thighs, and back. They are decribed as a "colicky" type of pain. That means the pain rises to a peak and falls, and starts over again. This reflects the contractions of the uterus that underlie the cramps.

      The severity of cramps varies widely from woman to woman and even between the same woman's periods. Some have cramps that are barely noticable. Some have crampes that are excruitating. They may also have weakness, chills, and dizziness. Gasto-intestinal symptoms are also common with severe cramps: nausea, vomitting, and diarrhea. Spasms of the leg and abdominal muscles occurs with severe cramps.

      PRIMARY (NORMAL) VS. SECONDARY (UNDERLYING PROBLEMS): WHO GETS WHICH
      Secondary dysmenorrhea is when cramps are due to an actual disease, such as endometriosis. The severity is NOT a clue as to whether or not the cramps are due to a disease that needs to be treated.

      Primary dysmenorrhea is more likely in women whose first period was early in life and those who have heavier flow. It is common in the first year or so of a girl's menstruation, no matter when she starts. Secondary is more likely when the problem starts after the age of 25, or when there are other symptoms. Still, the only way to know is to be looked at by a doctor.

      THE GOOD NEWS
      Menstrual cramps are closely tied to ovulatory cycles. So, that means women who have them are showing an important sign of their potential for fertility.

      MECHANISM: HOW MENSTRUAL CRAMPS HAPPEN
      A substance called prostagladins are the cause of most symptoms with dysmenorrhea. These are produced by the body and found in the uterine lining. When the lining starts to shed with menstruation, they are released. They cause the uterus to contract forcefully, which is the reason for much of the cramping itself.

      They also cause vasodilation of the circulatory system. In other words, the arteries and veins expand, so they pool blood instead of circulating it. This can cause pelvic congestion (blood pooling in the pelvis) and this itself causes discomfort and heaviness. It can drops the woman's blood pressure and therefore, the reason she might feel cold, clammy and lightheaded (the blood is diverted). In some women, it also causes contraction and spasm of the smooth muscle of the gastro-intestinal tract. This leads to nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

      The flow itself is part of the problem. Heavy flow or clots in the menstruation have to squeeze out through the small opening of the cervix. This stretching is believed to cause pain as well. This is believed to be the the reason some women's cramps subside or disappear after their first baby. The cervical opening has widened.

      SELF TREATMENT FOR MENSTRUAL CRAMPS
      Medications
      The main treatment for menstrual cramps are a class of drugs called Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs for short. These are drugs every woman knows: ibuprofen (Motrin) or Naproxen (Aleve). They work by stopping the body from making prostagladins. They also work by preventing blood clotting.

      They are not aspirin-related. So allergies or reactions to aspirin don't matter. They are safe for girls too. In spite of their pain-relieving properties, they are not narcotic. So, there is absolutely no reason to avoid them for women who don't want to be drowsy or have their thinking ability affected. They are not addicting either.

      NSAIDs should be avoided if there are any kind of bleeding problems including stomach ulcers. They are a bit irritating to any woman's stomach, and should be taken with food. NSAIDs should be avoided if a woman suspects pregnancy.

      How to Take Them
      Prostagladins are produced but quickly degraded in the body, in about a half hour. So, if a woman gets the NSAIDS on board before the cramps get going, she can short-circuit the whole process. If a woman is regular (if she knows approximately when, not the exact day), she can take the pill of her choice a few days before she starts. She can also gauge the start based on PMS symptoms or the first twinges of cramps. After the start is OK too.

      There are scores of different medications and brands to choose from. Different formulations work well on different women. This is becauese prostagladin production is a whole series of events. Different drugs in the NSAID category work on different stages of this process. There are individual differences as to which level of intervention works best. There is no way to predict which drug will work best on a particular woman.

      She should simply try one and then a different one, if it doesn't work. Check the back of the bottle for the generic chemical name to make sure the medication is not another brand name for the same drug. She should ask the pharmacist for help to find an NSAID that is subtantially different than the last one she tried.

      Generic ibuprofen is a good place to start, as it is the cheapest. Enteric coated are a better starting place for those with weak stomaches. Long-acting or once-a-days may be the first choice for teens whose schools restrict bringing pills to schoo or women who get infrequent breaks during the day. Also, remember to take one of the ones that lasts at least 12 hours when using them overnight. This is important as cramps are more likely when the period starts overnight and the blood pools and clots while lying down.

      Other Self-Treaments
      Exercise in general has also been shown to help alleviate dysmennorhea. It is not known to help the severe cramping (like those women could get up a jog anyway). A number of herbal, natural, and alternative medicine treatments claim to help. None has substantial scientific evidence, yet.

      WHEN SELF TREATMENT IS NOT ENOUGH
      If none of the over-the-counter types work, there are also a number of prescription NSAIDs available. The longer acting ones tend to be prescription only. This means the woman will need to visit the doctor. This can be a good time to make sure the cramps are primary and not secondary.

      If prescription NSAIDs don't work, birth control pills can lessen the menstrual flow and solve the problems of dysmenorrhea for many women. In resistent cases narcotic pain relievers can also be used.

  44. QUESTION:
    painful heartburn and indigestion. Natural remedies needed, Please! I'm in Pain!?
    It's my fault that I have it (drank some things over the weekend that were a little harsh on the tummy). I just need to know natural remedies to make it go away. My stomach and throat are on fire!! I threw-up 3 times in the past hour cause I can't even burp.
    I can't use over the counter stuff like pepto, milk of mag, etc.

    • ANSWER:
      Please follow my instructions carefully, if you feel any difficulties to follow some medical terms, further contact with me also.

      TEST OF PROPER DIGESTIVE POWER AND PROPER EATING : After the meals,you should feel energetic, light in

      body and capable of work - even running if necessary. If feel heavy, sleeping or dull, it indicates overeating or

      fast eating or a weakened digestive system.

      ASSITANCE OF ACUPRESSURE FOR THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM : Sit on a chair. Keep the grooved wooden roller on

      the ground, giving as much pressure as possible, roll the feet on the foot roller for five minutes-each foot. This

      will activate all the organs of the digestive system, kidney, lungs, etc. It is of great help to people above the

      age of 40. They should increase the use of ginger, Amla and lemon in their diet.

      LAXaTIVES : Laxative are not necessary. Check up the Sloar Plexus(point No.29) and correct it if necessary.

      Give pressure or rub on the middle of the chin for 3 to 6 minutes in the morning or while in W.C. to ensure the

      cleaning of the bowels and thus avoid constipation which is the root cause of many diseases. For a long term cure

      of constipation.

      1. Drink two to three glasses of lukewarm or hot water first thing in the morning. Lie on your back and roll

      the wooden roller on the stomach/abdomen.

      2. Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water during the day. If possible, drink buttermilk twice daily.

      3. Include leafy vegetables in your diet.

      4. Chew properly and roll your feet on a grooved wooden roller, 5 minutes every evening to increase your

      digestive power.

      STOOLS : Occasioally observe the stools. Nature gives us good indication of our digestive system.

      Odourless, properly formed dry stools floating in water or easily cleansible, indicate proper digestion.

      Otherwise, it is advisable to drink lukewarm water, preferably health drink or 2 glasses copper/silver/gold charged

      water reduced from 8 glasses first thing in the morning and take light food avoiding fried items and sweets.

      HOW TO CORRECT DIGESTIVE POWER : In case of long term complaint about the disorders of stomach, digestion,

      biles, etc. it is found useful to take the flolowing Homeopathic medicine for 4 to 6 weeks.

      Nux Vomica 200x4 Pills twice a week. Nux Vomica 12x4 Pills twice daily.

      HYPER - ACIDITY : Sometimes you wake up with a unpleaseant taste in the mouth, heaviness in the head, a

      bruning sensation in the stomach/heart and a feeling of nausea and vomiting. These signs indicate

      hypertension/liverishness. In such cases, take treatment on the point on the outer side of leg, one inch above the

      ankle, for 3 to 5 minutes. Plus treatment to remove excess heat as mentioned below. Also eat 2/3 pieces of clove

      or blackpepper after meals.

      FOR REMOVING EXCESS HEAT FROM THE BODY : (a) Take as first thing in the morning 1 teaspoonful of

      haritki churna (harde powder-powder of terminalia chebula retz) + 1/2 teaspoon sugar for 8 to 10 days continuously,

      then twice a week. This also keep the bowels clean.

      (b) Soak powder of 15 black pepper (Kali Mari) + 2 teaspoonful of (preferably crystal) sugar in 1 & 1/2 glass

      of water. Blend them and sip all as first thing in morning for 10 days. After 10 days, add 5 almonds to the

      blending and drink it for further 10 days.

      FURTHER DO THE FOLLOWING FOR LONG TERM RELIEF ;

      1. Remove excess heat as mentioned under (a) and (b).

      2. Give pressure treatment on Point No. 22, 23, 27 & 28.

      3. Half-an hour before meals, eat a mixture of half teaspoon of cumin seed powder (JEERA) + half teaspoon of

      sugar.

      4. After meals, chew 2 to 3 cloves or black pepper.

      5. Avoid constipation.

      6. Drink 2 to 3 cups of green juice.

      7. When you feel uneasy due to too much acidity, burning sensation, do as under:

      (i) Chew 2 to 3 pieces of black pepper with a pinch of sugar.

      (ii) Drink 3 to 4 table spoonfuls of cooled millk, every 15/20 minutes. If baking soda is available, add

      3 to 4 tablespoonfuls of it to this cooled milk and drink it every 15/25 minutes till burning sensation stops.

      8. In case of heaviness/pressure on chest due to gas, correct Solar Plexus (point No.29) and press inside

      border of Point No.8

  45. QUESTION:
    how to stop talking in your sleep?
    I know this is weird but for a long time my family and friends tell me i talk in my sleep, i know this is true because sometimes i catch myself talking in my sleep "/ such a strange thing i know. but how can i stop talking in my sleep?. LOL :P

    • ANSWER:
      What is sleep talking?

      Sleep talking, or somniloquy, is the act of speaking during sleep. It's a type of parasomnia -- an abnormal behavior that takes place during sleep. It's a very common occurrence and is not usually considered a medical problem.

      The nighttime chatter may be harmless, or it could be graphic, even R rated. Sometimes, listeners find the content offensive or vulgar. Sleep talkers normally speak for no more than 30 seconds per episode, but some people sleep talk many times during a night.

      The late-night diatribes may be exceptionally eloquent, or the words may be mumbled and hard to decipher. Sleep talking may involve simple sounds or long, involved speeches. Sleep talkers usually seem to be talking to themselves. But sometimes, they appear to carry on conversations with others. They may whisper, or they might shout. If you share a bedroom with someone who talks in his or her sleep, you might not be getting enough shut-eye.

      Who talks in their sleep?

      Many people talk in their sleep. Half of all kids between the ages of 3 and 10 years old carry on conversations while asleep, and a small number of adults -- about 5% -- keep chit-chatting after they go to bed. The utterances can take place occasionally or every night. A 2004 poll showed that more than 1 in 10 young children converse in their sleep more than a few nights a week.

      Girls talk in their sleep as much as boys. And experts think that sleep talking may run in families---------------------WebMD.com

      Remedy lies in acupressure techniques.

      Instant Diagnosis of any disease and or the affected organ[s]: In Ur case, U must check these remote control acupressure points.
      Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostrate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 17 [Hip], 18 [Urinary Bladder], 19 [intestines], 21 [appendix-front side], and 21 [allergy-back side]; 22[gall bladder], 23 [liver], 24[Shoulder], 25[Pancreas], 26[kidney], 27[Stomach], 28[Adrena gland], 29[Solar Plexus-Nabhi Chakra-Umbelicus], 30[Lungs], 31[Ear], 32[Energy], 33[Nerves of ear], 34[Cold], 35[Eye], 36[Heart], 37 [spleen]. 38[Thymus].

      Remote control Acupressure points given by the God.
      1. Instant Dignosis-If the particular point is tender on pressure by Ur thumb, U can note that that particular organ[s] is/are affected. U can indulge in instant diagnosis of any disease and or the affected organ[s].
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      2. For Cure/Treatment/Perceivable relief, hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      Palms/soles:

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles to diagnose & treat ailments of eyes, spine, breast cancer, etc., :

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ Vol.I & II available in all Indian Languages all over the globe---by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.

  46. QUESTION:
    Why do they allways show pirates with a patch,wood leg & hook?Did they really look like that? If true...why?
    Did they loose their hand,leg & eye in some kind of accident?

    • ANSWER:
      I agree with the other posters that many of the pirate stereotypes go back to Robert Louis Stevenson's character Long John Silver in Treasure Island.

      However a few things about those stereotypes should be kept in mind:

      1. The eye patch: Pirates were pirates because they wanted to capture ships. In order to maximize the value of the ships they captured, pirates avoided cannon firing if at all possible. A ship intact is worth more than a sinking ship. So when resisted, they preferred to board a ship rather than shoot it. The eye patch is invaluable in boarding a target vessel.

      On a bright Carribean day you come alongside the quarry and jump on board. The crew smartly retreats below deck where it's dark. You go below without the eyepatch and can't see a thing because your eyes have to adjust to the dark. You'll get dead very quickly. If instead you move the eye patch from one eye to the other, the formerly covered eye has perfect vision.

      2. The peg leg and hook: Medical care on the high seas in the 1600's and 1700's was primitive. If your ship had a doctor at all, he was almost never an educated physician. The typical ship's surgeon was a glorified barber who knew a little bit about dealing with wounds and knew a couple herbal remedies. The typical treatment for any serious injury was amputation. Splinter cut your thigh: take the leg. Finger crushed by the anchor: take the hand. A nice neat intentional wound had a much greater chance to heal than a gash.

      Sailing is a dangerous business, piracy more so. In that environment, it was very hard for a veteran to have all of his body parts to middle age.

  47. QUESTION:
    has any won heard of magic money spells?
    i saw one at www.luckywucky.com but cant find any more!

    • ANSWER:
      Look at the lives of these famous occultists, and then decide if it works:

      Henry Cornielius Agrippa von Nettesheim: One of the most famous occultists of the middle ages. His work has gone on to inspire hundreds of "magical" books and writings. Despite all his occult knowledge, he died in poverty at age 41 in 1532.

      Cagliostro, a famous French-Egyptian "magician", did the most embarrassing things, like putting a teacup on his erect penis and telling women "This is the only Bishop you will bow to!" He died in the Bastille in 1795.

      John Dee discovered Enochian Magick and tried unsuccessfully to get the spirits to bring him money. He spent the final years of his life stripped of his honors and income and was forced to live incommunicado. He died in extreme poverty at 81.

      Paracelsus: Thought himself a great physician, but he was really just an alchemist who had bizarre theories about human anatomy and prescribed dangerous remedies for his patients. This man was said to be arrogant and conceited, and was shunned by the other medical experts of his day.
      He died broke at the age of 48.

      Edward Kelly: An assistant of Dee, after failing to strike it rich with Enochian Magick, he was killed trying to escape prison. He had been imprisoned for his old hobby, counterfeiting.

      Aleister Crowley had a nervous breakdown in spent 4 months in an insane asylum after trying to conjure a demon in a Paris hotel. In 1947 he died impoverished in a flophouse, forgotten by his family, a drug addict and alcoholic, despite starting out in life as a rich heir to Crowley Ale. He squandered it all on drugs and whores. "Success is your proof " - -Liber Al Vel Legis 3:46, Aleister Crowley

      Gurdijef was a Russian con man who got involved in many money making scams. Once he dyed sparrows in peroxide and sold them as canaries! Even his biographers admit he had a "streak of charaltainism" about him. He created a system of bunk psychotherapy which is convoluted and even people who practice it can't clearly explain what is. In other words, it was the forerunner of Scientology.

      Christian Rosenkrutz never actually existed. The whole Rosicrucian thing was started as a joke to make fun of occultists by a Lutheran minister named Valentin Andrea.

      The Fox Sisters started the whole spiritist/seance’ movement in 1840. Years later they confessed the whole thing had been a hoax, but no one wanted to listen.

      Samuel "Macgregor" Mathers: Eventually all the members of the Golden Dawn figured out Mathers lied about the secret chiefs, which led to him being kicked out, & the Golden Dawn being disbanded. He died in poverty from Pnumonia in 1918.

      Jack Parsons blew himself up in his basement, making nitroglycerin, which he sold on the black market to supplement his income (apparently his money spells didn't work, either.)

      Pamela Coleman Smith painted the illustrations for Arthur Edward Waite's tarot deck, one of the most popular decks being used today. She died penniless and alone in a London flat.

      Paschal Beverly Randolph inspired people like Aleister Crowley, the members of the O.:T.:O.:., and Henri Gamache. His books are still in print. He committed suicide at age 44, leaving his wife and son to live in poverty.

      They couldn't make the occult work, neither can anyone else.
      Here's a quote from Wiccan Tradition Head Silver Ravenwolf:

      "For years I couldn't afford to go to a hair stylist (still can't, it's shop and chop for me). I got pretty good at styling my own hair from looking at magazine pictures" [SOURCE: Teen Witch, Llewellyn Publications, 2003 edition, page 145]

      She also wrote a book about Prosperity spells. Does she sound like she can make it work? She can't even afford a hairdresser! My wife just spent 0 at the beauty parlor and we're far from rich.

      Here's another quote from that same book:

      "A lot of people tell me how bad their lives have gotten after casting a spell and tell me they won't do Witchcraft anymore. I tell them their lives would have been much worse for not having cast the spell."

      If you want to really have a good life, ditch the occult.

  48. QUESTION:
    My body weight is starting to concern me......?
    i am now middle age and my weight is picking up.
    I work out every mon.-fri. with running.
    how is this happening?

    • ANSWER:
      I hate to seem like I'm spamming, and hate to seem cranky about it, but people refuse to understand this.
      I'm sorry if this upsets people but the answer to their problems is so simple! I know it's tough to have willpower and stick with this, and I'm no medical professional, but I know the true secret to lose weight and keep it off. It has been around for thousands of years, when mankind existed before the industrial revolution. You want to know the secret? It's the easiest remedy, requires no guesswork, and can take awhile, but is worth the benefits?

      Suspense gotcha yet?

      You really want to know?

      Promise you won't get mad.
      Did you promise?

      OK, the real true way the body was created, to maintain your weight true to your height and build is to....

      1) Eat as much unprocessed organic foods as possible. Lay off the prepackaged, starchy, homogenised, refined foods. Fresh fruit, fresh veggies, whole grains, and get as much protein from vegetation. ANYTHING YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO RAISE, GROW OR COOK FROM SCRATCH!! If you must eat meat, eat organic. Or buy from kosher markets. Drink bottled spring water. Fiji water is the best. It might seem more expensive at first, but think of it this way. Would you rather pay into aggravating medical bills stemming from your unhealthy lifestyle, or spend a little more serving you and your family healthy foods your bodies intended to have since the creation of mankind?
      Think about it. There wasn't a whole lot of overweight couch potato settlers. They worked for what they had. Physical labor, for meagre earnings, meagre food rationed. yet, they survived. They were their average weight. There was not diabetes, or any strange diseases we see today. Don't believe me?

      Google it. Which brings me to number 2...

      2) Exercise as much as you can. Even if it means short simple walks daily at first. Before all the modernisation of the world we walked, lifted, stooped, knelt, and occasionally ran. The ratio to exercise is burn off at least over half of what you consumed the previous day. Normal brain functions, stress, everyday activities besides exercise burns off the rest, and doesn't deposit as fat.

      If you aren't healthy enough for physical activities, I encourage you to cut out the prepackaged foods, and corn syrup laden drinks, and eat more natural foods. I guarantee you will lose weight from just doing that, than relying on herbal teas or any nutritional supplements you found that say "AS SEEN ON TV". Marketing gimmicks won't make you be healthy. ITS ONLY UP TO YOU!

      Be well

  49. QUESTION:
    what is the most challenging ophthalmological conditions?
    in egypt or in middle east

    • ANSWER:
      Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, can at times progress to a serious condition of corneal keratinization, ulceration, and scarring.

      Retinal diseases vary widely -- some are common and easily remedied, while others are rare, more difficult to diagnose and require more complex treatment.

      Retinal detachment A serious eye disease that requires prompt treatment
      Diabetic retinopathy A medical term for damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina, and the complications diabetes causes
      Epiretinal membrane Also known as macular pucker, epiretinal membrane is scar tissue-like membrane that grows on the macula and causes vision problems
      Macular hole The macula is the retinal tissue at the center of the retina responsible for central vision
      Age-related macular degeneration.

      A serious eye disease that requires prompt treatment, retinal detachment occurs when the gel-like substance that fills the eye cavity (vitreous) begins to sag and shrink with age. While this shifting occurs in most peoples' eyes as they age, it becomes dangerous quickly if the retina tears. When fluid from the vitreous begins to leak through the tear under the retina, the retina may begin to peel away from the underlying layer. The patient begins to lose vision in the areas where the retina is detached; if left untreated, this condition can lead to permanent and severe vision loss.

      Warning signs often appear before retinal detachment occurs, and prompt treatment is almost always successful in preserving vision. Patients should be aware that symptoms such as flashes of light or "cobwebs" floating in the field of vision could signal a serious problem that requires immediate medical attention.

      Various treatments are available for retinal tears and detachment. If the retina is torn without detachment, either photocoagulation (creating small burns on the retina) or cryopexy (freezing small areas of the retina) are effective in holding the retina to the underlying tissue and preventing retinal detachment and vision loss. If the retina is already detached, surgeries such as pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckling or vitrectomy may be performed.

  50. QUESTION:
    when was pnuemonia first found?
    like, when was it first diagnosed and stuff also who studied it?

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms of pneumonia were described by Hippocrates (c. 460 BC – 370 BC):

      Peripneumonia, and pleuritic affections, are to be thus observed: If the fever be acute, and if there be pains on either side, or in both, and if expiration be if cough be present, and the sputa expectorated be of a blond or livid color, or likewise thin, frothy, and florid, or having any other character different from the common... When pneumonia is at its height, the case is beyond remedy if he is not purged, and it is bad if he has dyspnoea, and urine that is thin and acrid, and if sweats come out about the neck and head, for such sweats are bad, as proceeding from the suffocation, rales, and the violence of the disease which is obtaining the upper hand.

      However, Hippocrates referred to pneumonia as a disease "named by the ancients." He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas. Maimonides (1138–1204 AD) observed "The basic symptoms which occur in pneumonia and which are never lacking are as follows: acute fever, sticking [pleuritic] pain in the side, short rapid breaths, serrated pulse and cough." This clinical description is quite similar to those found in modern textbooks, and it reflected the extent of medical knowledge through the Middle Ages into the 19th century.

      Bacteria were first seen in the airways of individuals who died from pneumonia by Edwin Klebs in 1875. Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed by Carl Friedländer and Albert Fränkel in 1882 and 1884, respectively. Friedländer's initial work introduced the Gram stain, a fundamental laboratory test still used to identify and categorize bacteria. Christian Gram's paper describing the procedure in 1884 helped differentiate the two different bacteria and showed that pneumonia could be caused by more than one microorganism.

      Sir William Osler, known as "the father of modern medicine," appreciated the morbidity and mortality of pneumonia, describing it as the "captain of the men of death" in 1918. However, several key developments in the 1900s improved the outcome for those with pneumonia. With the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics, modern surgical techniques, and intensive care in the twentieth century, mortality from pneumonia dropped precipitously in the developed world. Vaccination of infants against Haemophilus influenzae type b began in 1988 and led to a dramatic decline in cases shortly thereafter.Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults began in 1977 and in children began in 2000, resulting in a similar decline.

      Sir Osler applied the phrase "Captain of the Men of Death" to pneumonia, as it had overtaken tuberculosis as one of the leading causes of death in his time. The phrase was originally coined by John Bunyan with regard to consumption, or tuberculosis.

      I hope I helped

medical remedies in the middle ages